Understanding Jurisdiction

In all of history there has been but one successful protest against an income tax. It is little understood in that light, primarily because the remnants of protest groups still exist, but no longer wish to appear to be "anti-government." They don’t talk much about these roots. Few even know them. We need to go back in time about 400 years to find this success. It succeeded only because the term "jurisdiction" was still well understood at that time as meaning "oath spoken." "Juris," in the original Latin meaning, is "oath." "Diction" as everyone knows, means "spoken." The protest obviously didn’t happen here. It occurred in England. Given that the origins of our law are traced there, most of the relevant facts in this matter are still applicable in this nation. Here’s what happened.

The Bible had just recently been put into print. To that time, only the churches and nobility owned copies, due to given to the extremely high cost of paper. Contrary to what you’ve been taught, it was not the invention of movable type that led to printing this and other books. That concept had been around for a very long time. It just had no application. Printing wastes some paper. Until paper prices fell, it was cheaper to write books by hand than to print them with movable type. The handwritten versions were outrageously costly, procurable only by those with extreme wealth: churches, crowns and the nobility. The wealth of the nobility was attributable to feudalism. "Feud" is Old English for "oath." The nobility held the land under the crown. But unimproved land, itself, save to hunter/gatherers, is rather useless. Land is useful to farming. So that’s how the nobility made their wealth. No, they didn’t push a plow. They had servants to do it. The nobility wouldn’t sell their land, nor would they lease it. They rented it. Ever paid rent without a lease? Then you know that if the landlord raised the rent, you had no legal recourse. You could move out or pay. But what if you couldn’t have moved out? Then you’d have a feel for what feudalism was all about.

A tenant wasn’t a freeman. He was a servant to the (land)lord, the noble. In order to have access to the land to farm it, the noble required that the tenant kneel before him, hat in hand, swear an oath of fealty and allegiance and kiss his ring (extending that oath in that last act to the heirs of his estate). That oath established a servitude. The tenant then put his plow to the fields. The rent was a variable. In good growing years it was very high, in bad years it fell. The tenant was a subsistence farmer, keeping only enough of the produce of his labors to just sustain him and his family. Rent was actually an "income tax." The nobleman could have demanded 100% of the productivity of his servant except . . . under the common law, a servant was akin to livestock. He had to be fed. Not well fed, just fed, same as a horse or cow. And, like a horse or cow, one usually finds it to his benefit to keep it fed, that so that the critter is productive. Thus, the tenant was allowed to keep some of his own productivity. Liken it to a "personal and dependent deductions."

The freemen of the realm, primarily the tradesmen, were unsworn and unallieged. They knew it. They taught their sons the trade so they’d also be free when grown. Occasionally they took on an apprentice under a sworn contract of indenture from his father. His parents made a few coins. But the kid was the biggest beneficiary. He’d learn a trade. He’d never need to become a tenant farmer. He’d keep what he earned. He was only apprenticed for a term of years, most typically about seven. The tradesmen didn’t need adolescents; they needed someone strong enough to pull his own weight. They did not take on anyone under 13. By age 21 he’d have learned enough to practice the craft. That’s when the contract expired. He was then called a "journeyman." Had he made a journey? No. But, if you pronounce that word, it is "Jur-nee-man." He was a "man," formerly ("nee"), bound by oath ("jur)." He’d then go to work for a "master" (craftsman). The pay was established, but he could ask for more if he felt he was worth more. And he was free to quit. Pretty normal, eh? Yes, in this society that’s quite the norm. But 400 some years ago these men were the exceptions, not the rule. At some point, if the journeyman was good at the trade, he’d be recognized by the market as a "master" (craftsman) and people would be begging him to take their children as apprentices, so they might learn from him, become journeymen, and keep what they earned when manumitted at age 21! The oath of the tenant ran for life. The oath of the apprentice’s father ran only for a term of years. Still, oaths were important on both sides. In fact, the tradesmen at one point established guilds (means "gold") as a protection against the potential of the government attempting to bind them into servitudes by compelled oaths.

When an apprentice became a journeyman, he was allowed a membership in the guild only by swearing a secret oath to the guild. He literally swore to "serve gold." Only gold. He swore he’d only work for pay! Once so sworn, any other oath of servitude would be a perjury of that oath. He bound himself for life to never be a servant, save to the very benevolent master: gold! (Incidentally, the Order of Free and Accepted Masons is a remnant of one of these guilds. Their oath is a secret. They’d love to have you think that the "G" in the middle of their logo stands for "God." The obvious truth is that it stands for "GOLD.")

Then the Bible came to print. The market for this tome wasn’t the wealthy. They already had a handwritten copy. Nor was it the tenants. They were far too poor to make this purchase. The market was the tradesmen - and the book was still so costly that it took the combined life savings of siblings to buy a family Bible. The other reason that the tradesmen were the market was that they’d also been taught how to read as part of their apprenticeship. As contractors they had to know how to do that! Other than the families of the super-rich (and the priests) nobody else knew how to read.

These men were blown away when they read Jesus’ command against swearing oaths (Matt 5: 33-37). This was news to them. For well over a millennia they’d been trusting that the church - originally just the Church of Rome, but now also the Church of England - had been telling them everything they needed to know in that book. Then they found out that Jesus said, "Swear no oaths." Talk about an eye-opener.

Imagine seeing a conspiracy revealed that went back over 1000 years. Without oaths there’d have been no tenants, laboring for the nobility, and receiving mere subsistence in return. The whole society was premised on oaths; the whole society CLAIMED it was Christian, yet, it violated a very simple command of Christ! And the tradesmen had done it, too, by demanding sworn contracts of indenture for apprentices and giving their own oaths to the guilds. They had no way of knowing that was prohibited by Jesus! They were angry. "Livid" might be a better term. The governments had seen this coming. What could they do? Ban the book? The printing would have simply moved underground and the millennia long conspiracy would be further evidenced in that banning. They came up with a better scheme. You call it the "Reformation."

In an unprecedented display of unanimity, the governments of Europe adopted a treaty. This treaty would allow anyone the State-right of founding a church. It was considered a State right, there and then. The church would be granted a charter. It only had to do one very simple thing to obtain that charter. It had to assent to the terms of the treaty.

Buried in those provisions, most of which were totally innocuous, was a statement that the church would never oppose the swearing of lawful oaths. Jesus said, "None." The churches all said (and still say), "None, except . . ." Who do you think was (is) right?

The tradesmen got even angrier! They had already left the Church of England. But with every new "reformed" church still opposing the clear words of Christ, there was no church for them to join - or found. They exercised the right of assembly to discuss the Bible. Some of them preached it on the street corners, using their right of freedom of speech. But they couldn’t establish a church, which followed Jesus’ words, for that would have required assent to that treaty which opposed what Jesus had commanded. To show their absolute displeasure with those who’d kept this secret for so long, they refused to give anyone in church or state any respect. It was the custom to doff one’s hat when he encountered a priest or official. They started wearing big, ugly black hats, just so that the most myopic of these claimed "superiors" wouldn’t miss the fact that the hat stayed atop their head. Back then the term "you" was formal English, reserved for use when speaking to a superior. "Thee" was the familiar pronoun, used among family and friends. So they called these officials only by the familiar pronoun "thee" or by their Christian names, "George, Peter, Robert, etc." We call these folk "Quakers." That was a nickname given to them by a judge. One of them had told the judge that he’d better "Quake before the Lord, God almighty." The judge, in a display of irreverent disrespect replied, "Thee are the quaker here." They found that pretty funny, it being such a total misnomer (as you shall soon see), and the nickname stuck. With the huge membership losses from the Anglican Church - especially from men who’d been the more charitable to it in the past - the church was technically bankrupt. It wasn’t just the losses from the Quakers. Other people were leaving to join the new "Reformed Churches." Elsewhere in Europe, the Roman Church had amassed sufficient assets to weather this storm. The far newer Anglican Church had not.

But the Anglican Church, as an agency of the State, can’t go bankrupt. It becomes the duty of the State to support it in hard times. Parliament did so. It enacted a tax to that end. A nice religious tax, and by current standards a very low tax, a tithe (10%). But it made a deadly mistake in that. The Quakers, primarily as tradesmen, recognized this income tax as a tax "without jurisdiction,’ at least so far as they went. As men unsworn and unallieged, they pointed out that they didn’t have to pay it, nor provide a return. Absent their oaths establishing this servitude, there was "no jurisdiction." And they were right. Despite laws making it a crime to willfully refuse to make a return and pay this tax, NONE were charged or arrested.

That caused the rest of the society to take notice. Other folk who’d thought the Quakers were "extremists" suddenly began to listen to them. As always, money talks. These guys were keeping all they earned, while the rest of the un-sworn society, thinking this tax applied to them, well; they were out 10%. The Quaker movement expanded significantly, that proof once made in the marketplace. Membership in the Anglican Church fell even further, as did charity to it. The taxes weren’t enough to offset these further losses. The tithe (income) tax was actually counterproductive to the goal of supporting the church. The members of the government and the churchmen were scared silly. If this movement continued to expand at the current rate, no one in the next generation would swear an oath. Who’d then farm the lands of the nobility? Oh, surely someone would, but not as a servant working for subsistence. The land would need to be leased under a contract, with the payment for that use established in the market, not on the unilateral whim of the nobleman. The wealth of the nobility, their incomes, was about to be greatly diminished. And the Church of England, what assets it possessed, would need to be sold-off, with what remained of that church greatly reduced in power and wealth. But far worse was the diminishment of the respect demanded by the priests and officials. They’d always held a position of superiority in the society. What would they do when all of society treated them only as equals?

They began to use the term "anarchy." But England was a monarchy, not an anarchy. And that was the ultimate solution to the problem, or so those in government thought. There’s an aspect of a monarchy that Americans find somewhat incomprehensible, or at least we did two centuries ago. A crown has divine right, or at least it so claims. An expression of the divine right of a crown is the power to rule by demand. A crown can issue commands. The king says, "jump." Everyone jumps.

Why do they jump? Simple. It’s a crime to NOT jump. To "willfully fail (hey, there’s a couple of familiar terms) to obey a crown command" is considered to be a treason, high treason. The British crown issued a Crown Command to end the tax objection movement.

Did the crown order that everyone shall pay the income tax? No, that wasn’t possible. There really was "no jurisdiction." And that would have done nothing to cure the lack of respect. The crown went one better. It ordered that every man shall swear an oath of allegiance to the crown! Damned Christian thing to do, eh? Literally!

A small handful of the tax objectors obeyed. Most refused. It was a simple matter of black and white. Jesus said "swear not at all." They opted to obey Him over the crown. That quickly brought them into court, facing the charge of high treason. An official would take the witness stand, swearing that he had no record of the defendant’s oath of allegiance. Then the defendant was called to testify, there being no right to refuse to witness against one’s self. He refused to accept the administered oath. That refusal on the record, the court instantly judged him guilty. Took all of 10 minutes. That expedience was essential, for there were another couple hundred defendants waiting to be tried that day for their own treasons against the crown. In short order the jails reached their capacity, plus. But they weren’t filled as you’d envision them. The men who’d refused the oaths weren’t there. Their children were. There was a "Stand-in" law allowing for that. There was no social welfare system. The wife and children of a married man in prison existed on the charity of church and neighbors, or they ceased to exist, starving to death. It was typical for a man convicted of a petty crime to have one of his kid's stand in for him for 30 or 90 days. That way he could continue to earn a living, keeping bread on the table, without the family having to rely on charity. However, a man convicted of more heinous crimes would usually find it impossible to convince his wife to allow his children to serve his time. The family would prefer to exist on charity rather than see him back in society. But in this case the family had no option. The family was churchless. The neighbors were all in the same situation. Charity was non-existent for them. The family was destined to quick starvation unless one of the children stood- in for the breadwinner. Unfortunately, the rational choice of which child should serve the time was predicated on which child was the least productive to the family earnings.

That meant nearly the youngest, usually a daughter. Thus, the prisons of England filled with adolescent females, serving the life sentences for their dads. Those lives would be short. There was no heat in the jails. They were rife with tuberculosis and other deadly diseases. A strong man might last several years. A small girl measured her remaining time on earth in months. It was Christian holocaust, a true sacrifice of the unblemished lambs. (And, we must note, completely ignored in virtually every history text covering this era, lest the crown, government and church be duly embarrassed.) Despite the high mortality rate the jails still overflowed. There was little fear that the daughters would be raped or die at the brutality of other prisoners. The other prisoners, the real felons, had all been released to make room. Early release was premised on the severity of the crime. High treason was the highest crime. The murderers, thieves, arsonists, rapists, etc., had all been set free. That had a very profound effect on commerce. It stopped. There were highwaymen afoot on every road. Thugs and muggers ruled the city streets. The sworn subjects of the crown sat behind bolted doors, in cold, dark homes, wondering how they’d exist when the food and water ran out. They finally dared to venture out to attend meetings to address the situation. At those meetings they discussed methods to overthrow the crown to which they were sworn! Call that perjury. Call that sedition. Call it by any name, they were going to put their words into actions, and soon, or die from starvation or the blade of a thug. Here we should note that chaos (and nearly anarchy: "no crown") came to be, not as the result of the refusal to swear oaths, but as the direct result of the governmental demand that people swear them! The followers of Jesus’ words didn’t bring that chaos, those who ignored that command of Christ brought it. The crown soon saw the revolutionary handwriting on the wall and ordered the release of the children and the recapture of the real felons, before the government was removed from office under force of arms. The courts came up with the odd concept of an "affirmation in lieu of oath." The Quakers accepted that as a victory. Given what they’d been through, that was understandable. However, Jesus also prohibited affirmations, calling the practice an oath "by thy head." Funny that He could foresee the legal concept of an affirmation 1600 years before it came to be. Quite a prophecy!

When the colonies opened to migration, the Quakers fled Europe in droves, trying to put as much distance as they could between themselves and crowns. They had a very rational fear of a repeat of the situation. That put a lot of them here, enough that they had a very strong influence on politics. They could have blocked the ratification of the Constitution had they opposed it. Some of their demands were incorporated into it, as were some of their concessions, in balance to those demands. Their most obvious influence found in the Constitution is the definition of treason, the only crime defined in that document. Treason here is half of what can be committed under a crown. In the United States treason may only arise out of an (overt) ACTION. A refusal to perform an action at the command of the government is not a treason, hence, NOT A CRIME. You can find that restated in the Bill of Rights, where the territorial jurisdiction of the courts to try a criminal act is limited to the place wherein the crime shall have been COMMITTED. A refusal or failure is not an act "committed" - it’s the opposite, an act "omitted." In this nation "doing nothing" can’t be criminal, even when someone claims the power to command you do something. That concept in place, the new government would have lasted about three years. You see, if it were not a crime to fail to do something, then the officers of that government would have done NOTHING - save to draw their pay. That truth forced the Quakers to a concession.

Anyone holding a government job would need be sworn (or affirmed) to support the Constitution. That Constitution enabled the Congress to enact laws necessary and proper to control the powers vested in these people. Those laws would establish their duties. Should such an official "fail" to perform his lawful duties, he’d evidence in that omission that his oath was false. To swear a false oath is an ACTION. Thus, the punishments for failures would exist under the concept of perjury, not treason. But that was only regarding persons under oath of office, who were in office only by their oaths. And that’s still the situation. It’s just that the government has very cleverly obscured that fact so that the average man will pay it a rent, a tax on income. As you probably know, the first use of income tax here came well in advance of the 16th amendment. That tax was NEARLY abolished by a late 19th century Supreme Court decision. The problem was that the tax wasn’t apportioned, and couldn’t be apportioned, that because of the fact that it rested on the income of each person earning it, rather than an up-front total, divided and meted out to the several States according to the census. But the income tax wasn’t absolutely abolished. The court listed a solitary exception. The incomes of federal officers, derived as a benefit of office, could be so taxed. You could call that a "kick back" or even a "return." Essentially, the court said that what Congress gives, it can demand back. As that wouldn’t be income derived within a State, the rule of apportionment didn’t apply. Make sense?

Now, no court can just make up rulings. The function of a court is to answer the questions posed to it. And in order to pose a question, a person needs standing." The petitioner has to show that an action has occurred which affects him, hence, giving him that standing. For the Supreme Court to address the question of the income of officers demonstrates that the petitioner was such. Otherwise, the question couldn’t have come up.

Congress was taxing his benefits of office. But Congress was ALSO taxing his outside income, that from sources within a State. Could have been interest, dividends, rent, royalties, and even alimony. If he had a side job, it might have even been commissions or salary. Those forms of income could not be taxed. However, Congress could tax his income from the benefits he derived by being an officer.

That Court decision was the end of all income taxation. The reason is pretty obvious. Rather than tax the benefits derived out of office, it’s far easier to just reduce the benefits up front! Saves time. Saves paper. The money stays in Treasury rather than going out, then coming back as much as 15 or 16 months later. So, even though the benefits of office could have been taxed, under that Court ruling, that tax was dropped by Congress. There are two ways to overcome a Supreme Court ruling. The first is to have the court reverse itself. That’s a very strange concept at law. Actually, it’s impossibility at law. The only way a court can change a prior ruling is if the statutes or the Constitution change, that changing the premises on which its prior conclusion at law was derived. Because it was a Supreme Court ruling nearly abolishing the income tax, the second method, an Amendment to the Constitution, was used to overcome the prior decision. That was the 16th Amendment.

The 16th allows for Congress to tax incomes from whatever source derived, without regard to apportionment. Whose incomes? Hey, it doesn’t say (nor do the statues enacted under it). The Supreme Court has stated that this Amendment granted Congress "no new powers." That’s absolutely true. Congress always had the power to tax incomes, but only the incomes of officers and only their incomes derived out of a benefit of office. All the 16th did was extend that EXISTING POWER to tax officers’ incomes (as benefits of office) to their incomes from other sources (from whatever source derived). The 16th Amendment and the statutes enacted thereunder don’t have to say whose incomes are subject to this tax. The Supreme Court had already said that: officers. That’s logical. If it could be a crime for a freeman to "willfully fail" to file or pay this tax, that crime could only exist as a treason by monarchical definition. In this nation a crime of failure may only exist under the broad category of a perjury. Period, no exception.

Thus, the trick employed by the government is to get you to claim that you are an officer of that government. Yeah, you’re saying, "Man, I’d never be so foolish as to claim that." I’ll betcha $100 I can prove that you did it and that you’ll be forced to agree. Did you ever sign a tax form, a W-4, a 1040? Then you did it.

Look at the fine print at the bottom of the tax forms you once signed. You declared that it was "true" that you were "under penalties of perjury." Are you? Were you? Perjury is a felony. To commit a perjury you have to FIRST be under oath (or affirmation). You know that. It’s common knowledge. So, to be punished for a perjury you’d need to be under oath, right? Right. There’s no other way, unless you pretend to be under oath. To pretend to be under oath is a perjury automatically. There would be no oath. Hence it’s a FALSE oath. Perjury rests on making a false oath. So, to claim to be "under penalties of perjury" is to claim that you’re under oath. That claim could be true, could be false. But if false, and you knowingly and willingly made that false claim, then you committed a perjury just by making that claim.

You’ve read the Constitution. How many times can you be tried and penalized for a single criminal act? Once? Did I hear you right? Did you say once; only once? Good for you. You know that you can’t even be placed in jeopardy of penalty (trial) a second time.

The term "penalties" is plural. More than one. Oops. Didn’t you just state that you could only be tried once, penalized once, for a single criminal action? Sure you did. And that would almost always be true. There’s a solitary exception. A federal official or employee may be twice tried, twice penalized. The second penalty, resulting out of a conviction of impeachment, is the loss of the benefits of office, for life. Federal officials are under oath, an oath of office. That’s why you call them civil servants. That oath establishes jurisdiction (oath spoken), allowing them to be penalized, twice, for a perjury (especially for a perjury of official oath). You have been tricked into signing tax forms under the perjury clause. You aren’t under oath enabling the commission of perjury. You can’t be twice penalized for a single criminal act, even for a perjury. Still, because you trusted that the government wouldn’t try to deceive you, you signed an income tax form, pretending that there was jurisdiction (oath spoken) where there was none.

Once you sign the first form, the government will forever believe that you are a civil servant. Stop signing those forms while you continue to have income and you’ll be charged with "willful failure to file," a crime of doing nothing when commanded to do something!

Initially, the income tax forms were required to be SWORN (or affirmed) before a notary. A criminal by the name of Sullivan brought that matter all the way to the Supreme Court. He argued that if he listed his income from criminal activities, that information would later be used against him on a criminal charge. If he didn’t list it, then swore that the form was "true, correct and complete," he could be charged and convicted of a perjury. He was damned if he did, damned if he didn’t. The Supreme Court could only agree. It ruled that a person could refuse to provide any information on that form, taking individual exception to each line, and stating in that space that he refused to provide testimony against himself. That should have been the end of the income tax. In a few years everyone would have been refusing to provide answers on the "gross" and "net income" lines, forcing NO answer on the "tax due" line, as well. Of course, that decision was premised on the use of the notarized oath, causing the answers to have the quality of "testimony."

Congress then INSTANTLY ordered the forms be changed. In place of the notarized oath, the forms would contain a statement that they were made and signed "Under penalties of perjury." The prior ruling of the Supreme Court was made obsolete. Congress had changed the premise on which it had reached its conclusion. The verity of the information on the form no longer rested on a notarized oath. It rested on the taxpayer’s oath of office. And, as many a tax protestor in the 1970s and early 1980s quickly discovered, the Supreme Court ruling for Sullivan had no current relevance.

There has never been a criminal trial in any matter under federal income taxation without a SIGNED tax form in evidence before the court. The court takes notice of the signature below the perjury clause and assumes the standing of the defendant is that of a federal official, a person under oath of office who may be twice penalized for a single criminal act of perjury (to his official oath). The court has jurisdiction to try such a person for a "failure." That jurisdiction arises under the concept of perjury, not treason.

However, the court is in an odd position here. If the defendant should take the witness stand, under oath or affirmation to tell the truth, and then truthfully state that he is not under oath of office and is not a federal officer or employee, that statement would contradict the signed statement on the tax form, already in evidence and made under claim of oath. That contradiction would give rise to a technical perjury. Under federal statutes, courtroom perjury is committed when a person willfully makes two statements, both under oath, which contradict one another.

The perjury clause claims the witness to be a federal person. If he truthfully says the contrary from the witness stand, the judge is then duty bound to charge him with the commission of a perjury! At his ensuing perjury trial, the two contradictory statements "(I’m) under penalties of perjury" and "I’m not a federal official or employee" would be the sole evidence of the commission of the perjury. As federal employment is a matter of public record, the truth of the last statement would be evidenced. That would prove that the perjury clause was a FALSE statement. Can’t have that proof on the record, can we? About now you are thinking of some tax protester trials for "willful failure" where the defendant took the witness stand and testified, in full truth, that he was not a federal person. This writer has studied a few such cases. Those of Irwin Schiff and F. Tupper Saussy come to mind. And you are right; they told the court that they weren’t federal persons. Unfortunately, they didn’t tell the court that while under oath. A most curious phenomenon occurs at "willful failure" trials where the defendant has published the fact, in books or newsletters, that he isn’t a federal person. The judge becomes very absent-minded - at least that’s surely what he’d try to claim if the issue were ever raised. He forgets to swear-in the defendant before he takes the witness stand. The defendant tells the truth from the witness stand, but does so without an oath. As he’s not under oath, nothing he says can constitute a technical perjury as a contradiction to the "perjury clause" on the tax forms already in evidence. The court will almost always judge him guilty for his failure to file. Clever system. And it all begins when a person who is NOT a federal officer or employee signs his first income tax form, FALSELY claiming that he’s under an oath which if perjured may bring him a duality of penalties. It’s still a matter of jurisdiction (oath spoken). That hasn’t changed in over 400 years. The only difference is that in this nation, we have no monarch able to command us to action. In the United States of America, you have to VOLUNTEER to establish jurisdiction. Once you do, then you are subject to commands regarding the duties of your office. Hence the income tax is "voluntary," in the beginning, but "compulsory" once you volunteer. You volunteer when you sign your very first income tax form, probably a Form W-4 and probably at about age 15. You voluntarily sign a false statement, a false statement that claims that you are subject to jurisdiction. Gotcha! Oh, and when the prosecutor enters your prior signed income tax forms into evidence at a willful failure to file trial, he will always tell the court that those forms evidence that you knew it was your DUTY to make and file proper returns. DUTY! A free man owes no DUTY. A free man owes nothing to the federal government, as he receives nothing from it. But a federal official owes a duty. He receives something from that government - the benefits of office. In addition to a return of some of those benefits, Congress can also demand that he pay a tax on his other forms of income, now under the 16th Amendment, from whatever source they may be derived. If that were ever to be understood, the ranks of real, sworn federal officers would diminish greatly. And the ranks of the pretended federal officers (including you) would vanish to zero. It’s still the same system as it was 400 years ago, with appropriate modifications, so you don’t immediately realize it. Yes, it’s a jurisdictional matter. An Oath-spoken matter. Quite likely you, as a student of the Constitution, have puzzled over the 14th Amendment. You’ve wondered who are persons "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States and in the alternative, who are not. This is easily explained, again in the proper historical perspective.

The claimed purpose of the 14th was to vest civil rights to the former slaves. A method was needed to convert them from chattel to full civil beings. The Supreme Court had issued rulings that precluded that from occurring. Hence, an Amendment was necessary. But it took a little more than the amendment. The former slaves would need to perform an act, subjecting themselves to the "jurisdiction" of the United States. You should now realize that an oath is the way that was/is accomplished.

After the battles of the rebellion had ceased, the manumitted slaves were free, but rightless. They held no electoral franchise - they couldn’t vote. The governments of the Southern States were pretty peeved over what had occurred in the prior several years, and they weren’t about to extend electoral franchises to the former slaves. The Federal government found a way to force that.
It ordered that voters had to be "registered." And it ordered that to become a registered voter, one had to SWEAR an oath of allegiance to the Constitution. The white folks, by and large, weren’t about to do that. They were also peeved that the excuse for all the battles was an unwritten, alleged, Constitutional premise, that a "State had no right to secede." The former slaves had no problem swearing allegiance to the Constitution. The vast majority of them didn’t have the slightest idea of what an oath was, nor did they even know what the Constitution was!

Great voter registration drives took place. In an odd historical twist, these were largely sponsored by the Quakers who volunteered their assistance. Thus, most of the oaths administered were administered by Quakers! Every former slave was sworn-in, taking what actually was an OATH OF OFFICE. The electoral franchise then existed almost exclusively among the former slaves, with the white folks in the South unanimously refusing that oath and denied their right to vote. For a while many of the Southern State governments were comprised of no one other than the former slaves. The former slaves became de jure (by oath) federal officials, "subject to the jurisdiction of the United States" by that oath. They were non-compensated officials, receiving no benefits of their office, save what was then extended under the 14th Amendment. There was some brief talk of providing compensation in the form of 40 acres and a mule, but that quickly faded.

Jurisdiction over a person exists only by oath. Always has, always will. For a court to have jurisdiction, some one has to bring a charge or petition under an oath. In a criminal matter, the charge is forwarded under the oaths of the grand jurors (indictment) or under the oath of office of a federal officer (information). Even before a warrant may be issued, someone has to swear there is probable cause. Should it later be discovered that there was NOT probable cause, that person should be charged with a perjury. It’s all about oaths. And the one crime for which immunity, even "sovereign immunity," cannot be extended is ... perjury.

You must understand "jurisdiction." That term is only understandable when one understands the history behind it. Know what "jurisdiction" means. You didn’t WILLFULLY claim that you were "Under penalties of perjury" on those tax forms you signed. You may have done it voluntarily, but you surely did it ignorantly! You didn’t realize the import and implications of that clause. It was, quite frankly, a MISTAKE. A big one. A dumb one. Still it was only a mistake. Willfulness rests on intent. You had no intent to claim that you were under an oath of office, a perjury of which could bring you dual penalties. You just didn’t give those words any thought. What do you do when you discover you’ve made a mistake? As an honest man, you tell those who may have been affected by your error, apologize to them, and usually you promise to be more careful in the future, that as a demonstration that you, like all of us, learn by your mistakes. You really ought to drop the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States a short letter, cc it to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. Explain that you never realized that the fine print on the bottom of all income tax forms meant that you were claiming to be "under oath" a perjury of which might be "twice" penalized. Explain that you’ve never sworn such an oath and that for reasons of conscience, you never will. You made this mistake on every tax form you’d ever signed. But now that you understand the words, you’ll most certainly not make that mistake again! That’ll be the end of any possibility that you’ll ever be charged with "willful failure to file." Too simple? No, it’s only as simple as it’s supposed to be. Jurisdiction (oath spoken) is a pretty simple matter. Either you are subject to jurisdiction, by having really sworn an oath, or you are not. If you aren’t under oath, and abolish all the pretenses, false pretenses you provided, on which the government assumed that you were under oath, then the jurisdiction fails and you become a freeman. A freeman can’t be compelled to perform any act and threatened with a penalty, certainly not two penalties, should he fail to do so. That would constitute a treason charge by the part of the definition abolished here.

It’s a matter of history. European history, American history, and finally, the history of your life. The first two may be hidden from you, making parts of them difficult to discover. But the last history you know. If you know that you’ve never sworn an oath of office, and now understand how that truth fits the other histories, then you are free. Truth does that. Funny how that works.

Jesus was that Truth. His command that His followers "Swear not at all." That was the method by which He set men free. Israel was a feudal society. It had a crown; it had landlords; they had tenant farmers bound by oath to them. Jesus scared them silly. Who’d farm those lands in the next generation, when all of the people refused to swear oaths? Ring a bell? And what did the government do to Jesus? It tried to obtain jurisdiction on the false oath of a witness, charging Him with "sedition" for the out-of-context, allegorical statement that He’d "tear down the temple" (a government building). At that trial, Jesus stood mute, refusing the administered oath. That was unheard of!

The judge became so frustrated that he posed a trick question attempting to obtain jurisdiction from Jesus. He said, "I adjure you in the name of the Living God, are you the man (accused of sedition)." An adjuration is a "compelled oath." Jesus then broke his silence, responding, "You have so said."

He didn’t "take" the adjured oath. He left it with its speaker, the judge! That bound the judge to truth. Had the judge also falsely said that Jesus was the man (guilty of sedition)? No, not out loud, not yet. But in his heart he’d said so. That’s what this trial was all about. Jesus tossed that falsehood back where it belonged as well as the oath. In those few words, "You have so said," Jesus put the oath, and the PERJURY of it, back on the judge, where it belonged. The court couldn’t get jurisdiction.

Israel was occupied by Rome at that time. The court then shipped Jesus off to the martial governor, Pontius Pilate, hoping that martial power might compel him to submit to jurisdiction. But Pilate had no quarrel with Jesus. He correctly saw the charge as a political matter, devoid of any real criminal act. Likely, Pilate offered Jesus the "protection of Rome." Roman law extended only to sworn subjects. All Jesus would need do is swear an oath to Caesar, then Pilate could protect him. Otherwise, Jesus was probably going to turn up dead at the hands of "person or persons unknown" which would really be at the hands of the civil government, under the false charge of sedition. Pilate administered that oath to Caesar. Jesus stood mute, again refusing jurisdiction. Pilate "marveled at that." He’d never before met a man who preferred to live free or die. Under Roman law the unsworn were considered to be unclean - the "great unwashed masses." The elite were sworn to Caesar. When an official errantly extended the law to an unsworn person that "failure of jurisdiction" required that the official perform a symbolic act. To cleanse himself and the law, he would "wash his hands." Pilate did so. Under Roman law, the law to which he was sworn, he had to do so. The law, neither Roman law nor the law of Israel, could obtain jurisdiction over Jesus. The law couldn’t kill Him, nor could it prevent that murder. Jesus was turned over to a mob, demanding His death. How’s that for chaos? Jesus was put to death because He refused to be sworn. But the law couldn’t do that. Only a mob could do so, setting free a true felon in the process. Thus, Jesus proved the one failing of the law - at least the law then and there - the law has no ability to touch a truly free man. A mob can, but the result of that is chaos, not order.

In every situation where a government attempts to compel an oath, or fails to protect a man of conscience who refuses it, the result is chaos. That government proves itself incapable of any claimed powers as the result, for the only purpose of any government should be to defend the people establishing it - all of those people - and not because they owe that government any duty or allegiance, but for the opposite reason, because the government owes the people its duty and allegiance under the law. This nation came close to that concept for quite a few decades. Then those in federal office realized that they could fool all of the people, some of the time. That "some of the time" regarded oaths and jurisdiction. We were (and still are) a Christian nation, at least the vast majority of us claim ourselves to be Christian. But we are led by churchmen who still uphold the terms of that European treaty. They still profess that it is Christian to swear an oath, so long as it’s a "lawful oath." We are deceived. As deceived as the tenant in 1300, but more so, for we now have the Words of Jesus to read for ourselves.

Jesus said, "Swear no oaths," extending that even to oaths which don’t name God. If His followers obeyed that command, the unscrupulous members of the society in that day would have quickly realized that they could file false lawsuits against Jesus’ followers, suits that they couldn’t answer (under oath). Thus, Jesus issued a secondary command, ordering His followers to sell all they had, making themselves what today we call "judgement proof." They owned only their shirt and a coat. If they were sued for their shirt, they were to offer to settle out-of-court (without oath) by giving the plaintiff their coat. That wasn’t a metaphor. Jesus meant those words in the literal sense!

It’s rather interesting that most income tax protestors are Christian and have already made themselves virtually judgement proof, perhaps inadvertently obeying one of Jesus’ commands out of a self-preservation instinct. Do we sense something here? You need to take the final step. You must swear no oaths. That is the penultimate step in self-preservation, and in obedience to the commands of Christ. It’s all a matter of "jurisdiction" (oath spoken), which a Christian can’t abide. Christians must be freemen. Their faith, duty and allegiance can go to no one on earth. We can’t serve two masters. No one can. As Christians our faith and allegiance rests not on an oath. Our faith and allegiance arise naturally. These are duties owed by a child to his father. As Children of God, we must be faithful to Him, our Father, and to our eldest Brother, the Inheritor of the estate. That’s certain.

As to what sort of a society Jesus intended without oaths or even affirmations, this writer honestly can’t envision. Certainly it would have been anarchy (no crown). Would it have also been chaos? My initial instinct is to find that it would lead to chaos. Like the Quakers in 1786, I can’t envision a functional government without the use of oaths. Yet, every time a government attempts to use oaths as a device to compel servitudes, the result is CHAOS. History proves that. The Dark Ages were dark, only because the society was feudal, failing to advance to enlightenment because they were sworn into servitudes, unwittingly violating Jesus’ command. When the British crown attempted to compel oaths of allegiance, chaos certainly resulted. And Jesus’ own death occurred only out of the chaos derived by His refusal to swear a compelled oath and an offered oath.

The current Internal Revenue Code is about as close to legislated chaos as could ever be envisioned. No two people beginning with identical premises will reach the same conclusion under the IRC. Is not that chaos? Thus, in every instance where the government attempts to use oaths to bind a people, the result has been chaos.

Hence, this writer is forced to the conclusion that Jesus was right. We ought to avoid oaths at all costs, save our own souls, and for precisely that reason. Yet, what system of societal interaction Jesus envisioned, without oaths, escapes me. How would we deal with murderers, thieves, rapists, etc. present in the society without someone bringing a complaint, sworn complaint, before a Jury (a panel of sworn men), to punish them for these criminal actions against the civil members of that society? Perhaps you, the reader, can envision what Jesus had in mind. Even if you can’t, you still have to obey His command. That will set you free. As to where we go from there, well, given that there has never been a society, neither civil nor martial, which functioned without oaths, I guess we won’t see how it will function until it arrives.

Meanwhile, the first step in the process is abolishing your prior FALSE claims of being under oath (of office) on those income tax forms. You claimed "jurisdiction." Only you can reverse that by stating the Truth. It worked 400 years ago. It’ll still work. It’s the only thing that’ll work. History can repeat, but this time without the penalty of treason extended to you (or your daughters). You can cause it. Know and tell this Truth and it will set you free. HONESTLY. Tell the government, then explain it to every Christian you know. Most of them will hate you for that bit of honesty. Be kind to them anyhow. Once they see that you are keeping what you earn, the market will force them to realize that you aren’t the extremist they originally thought! If only 2% of the American people understand what is written here, income taxation will be abolished - that out of a fear that the knowledge will expand. The government will be scared silly. What if no one in the next generation would swear an oath? Then there’d be no servants! No, the income tax will be abolished long before that could ever happen. That’s only money. Power comes by having an ignorant people to rule. A government will always opt for power. That way, in two or three generations, the knowledge lost to the obscure "between the lines" of history, they can run the same money game. Pass this essay on to your Christian friends. But save a copy. Will it to your grandchildren. Someday, they too will probably need this knowledge. Teach your children well. Be honest; tell the truth. That will set you free - and it’ll scare the government silly.

Consciousness as a creation of words

Conscious mind is a creation of words. Therefore, no one in his socially defined, right-thinking, right-handed mind can perceive anything not previously defined by words. Experiments have found that people lacking the words to describe subtle colours are also unable to distinguish fine differences in hues, but as soon as they are given the words to define the differences between crimson, scarlet, and vermillion, for example, they no longer see all reds as red.

[Source: T.B.Pawlicki - Exploring Hyperspace in Everyday Life]

The Impossibility of Communication

Assigning different identities to different aspects of the same structure is most commonly experienced in interpersonal relationships. During the initial rush of love, all perceptions that trouble the purity of the relationship is repressed. Admonitions from friends and family to watch where you are giving your heart are ignored as utterly irrelevant to the paragon identified with all the virtues of true love, and none of the vices. When dissonant aspects of the loved one appear from behind the Veils of Maya, they are perceived to belong to another person, a stranger in your home and a devil in your bed.

Unable to conceive that pleasure and pain can come from the same parent, infants perceive a good true-parent and a wicked step-parent. Most people still cannot identify God with the devil, nor can they perceive that Heaven and hell are complementary aspects of one real world.

The Latin mind has no imprinted concept of the English SCHWA sound. Without the mental concept, the Latin ear cannot distinguish between his and hees. The sound of big activates the concept of beeg, and beeg is what the Latin mind hears. Likewise, the Japanese mind has no imprint for the ell sound; in the Japanese mind, the elle sound is heard as arr.

Male and female mentalities are imprinted with different concepts making it physically impossible for the opposite sex to receive the same message that is sent. Communication between sexes is like communication between different species. No matter how many times arguments are settled, the very next argument is the very same argument. Acquiescence is not agreement, but resignation and tolerance of the incomprehensible.

[Source: T.B.Pawlicki - Exploring Hyperspace in Everyday Life]

Earth resonant frequency

[...] during the early days of World War II [...] radar spotters picked up the echoes of distant aircraft by listening through giant earphones instead of watching blips on flourescent screens, as is done today. The crews frequently reported hearing whistles of no known cause. Eventually, research reported in Scientific American found an ionized layer in the upper atmosphere that filters radio waves selectively in the 7.5-cycle-per-second band, and apparently reflects them back to Earth, bringing them to a focus at the antipodes.

When lightning strikes, a broad band of radio waves is emitted, to be heard as static in unfiltered radio sets. The 7.5-cycle-per-second band is filtered from lightning discharging at the other side of the world and brought by the Schumann Layer to a focus 180 degrees distant, where the radar spotters heard the filtered static as whistles.

To military engineers, the 7.5-cycle-per-second frequency possesse two properties of great value. The Schumann Layer guides this wavelength all around the world without losing signal strength, like light between two mirror. This wavelength also penetrates water. The United States Navy realized that this was the frequency needed to keep in constant communication with its nuclear submarine fleet, constantly ranging beneath the surface of the world's oceans, and so it constructed a worldwide radio network broadcasting on the 7.5 Hz band, called the Sanguine Project - later extended for civilian shipping as the Omega Navigation System.

The striking property of the 7.5-cycle-per-second radio wave is that it is exactly 25,000 miles long. A wave broadcast at this frequency will expand in a growing circle until it is as long around as the equator, and then contract until it cones to a focus at the antipodes. At the other side of the world, it reverses phase and direction, expanding again to girdle the globe before returning to another focus at its exact point of origin. The loop of this wave arrives at its point of origin exactly in time to coincide with its own following wave. This means that only a single wave exists at any time, and that the wave encompasses the whole world. The entire planet beats electromagnetically at this frequency, like a cosmic heart. The 7.5-cycle-per-second frequency is the fundamental period of surface resonance of the global crystal.

[...]esla knew there is a powerful voltage between the Earth and the upper atmosphere; this is what causes lightning to discharge from the Earth to the sky. When an antenna is raised, this voltage climbs it, in a gradient to be concentrated at the tip. Any fluctuation in the natural voltage between Earth and sky generates a flow of electricity in the antenna. This is how a radio receiver works.

In radio's early days, the current generated in the receiving antenna was fed into a resonating circuit that would filter out the wavelength of the broadcasting station to which it was tuned and amplify the signal until it had enough energy to actuate earphones.

Tesla figured that the Earth would filter out its resonant frequency, amplify the current by its resonance, and function as a capacitor in a circuit as big as the entire planet. He pumped an electric current into the Earth, and tuned to a precise harmonic length of the Earth's resonant frequency. As he expected, the electric wave traveled to the antipodes and bounced back in time to coincide with its own following wave, doubling its amplitude. After repeated amplification in this manner, the electric energy burst from the top of Tesla's pyramidal tower to illuminate the entire countryside with the most spectacular artificial lightning storm ever seen. The surge melted the wiring in all the power generators serving the whole county. No one would supply Tesla with electricity after that.

Undaunted by superabundant success, Tesla continued his experiments to prove that when his antenna was pumping electric waves into the Earth, a standing-wave pattern was generated in the planet's geo-electromagmetic structure. At precise degree intervals, or harmonic fractions thereof, all Tesla had to do was drive a metal rod into the ground and plug in the electric frying pan, hair dryer, or washing machine.

[...]It was Nikola Tesla who electrified the world with alternating current. To the end of his life, Tesla dreamed of recycling all those unsightly high-voltage electric power transmission towers and replacing them with broadcast power generated and received through the Earth. But if power could be tapped from the Earth, how would Consolidated Edison - General Electric - Standard Oil bill you for it?

If we can all communicate on Pyramid Power, where does Ma Bell cut in? When he died in New York City on a winter night in 1943, Tesla was alone in a hotel room, possessing little more than when he had arrived as an immigrant with four cents in his pockets. The Secret Service immediately sealed his room, and whatever papers he had were transferred to government vaults, where they remain to this day.

[Source: T. B. Pawlicki - How to Build a Flying Saucer And Other Proposals in Speculative Engineering, chapter 2: This Crystal Planet - How to Create a Worldwide Communications Network - Still Using Bronze Age Technology]

Solar System History

[...]Before contacts with Venus and Mars, our Earth suffered a number of cataclysmic contacts. One of the earliest was when the Earth attracted the Moon, still in memory of human kind. Thereafter passing in Saturn atmosphere the Earth was drowned in hydrogen, which drifting through oxygen of the Earth, became water. Thereafter Earth suffered heavily when Saturn and Jupiter collided, and the Earth passed dangerous close to Jupiter. Electrical contacts, change of calender (year, month, day) happened already at that times, in the fourth (?) and third millenia before the present era. Gigantic forms of life which existed at that time, only in few exemplars survived these catastrophes, but were still in existence 34 centuries ago, at the contact-cataclysm caused by Venus. The teaching of Darwin which supposes but slow changes in life-forms is wrong. Gigantic reptilia ceased to exist not tens of millions of years ago, but they lived still a few thousand years ago; they perished in catastrophes, and those that survived could not exist in new conditions, especially because of changed weight of all objects, and of their large bodies, not capable to move, esp. during gravity. Brontosaurus was not a reptile, as it is thought, but a mammal. Humankind survived in races of small kind. Gigants were exterminated. The buildings of cyclopic size-stones were possible chiefly because of different weight of all objects before the contacts. The theories of slowly development of mountains and valleys under causes like rain and wind, are wrong. The earthquakes are the post-effects of the contacts and are readjustments of displaced masses and twisted strata.

[...]To begin with, our Earth collided (contacted) in the fifteenth century before this era with a comet. The head of the comet exchanged violent electrical discharges with our planet, and also with its own tail. The Earth changed the poles, south becoming north, changed axis, changed the orbit of revolution changed speed. As a result, the year that consisted previously of 260 became 36o days (our orbit was approximately that of Venus today). The moon changed its orbit, and the month of 20 days became of 36. Iron previously neared to the core of the Earth, appeared in upper layers. Neft poured from sky and built the present deposit. Meteorites fell in abundance. Harras in desert of Arabia are meteorites fields. Lava streamed on the surface of the Earth not only from volcanoes, but also from clefts. Continents and seas changed places. Rivers disappeared, others appeared, still others inversed their direction (f.e. Jordan, that flow previously to the Meditteraneum, Dead sea being not in existence). A major part of human kind perished. A double tide of immense high swept seas and continents. In general conflagration woods burned down, rivers boiled; magnetic storms reached degree hurtful to bioplasma; immense hurricane accompanied the change of rotation of the Earth. In places struck by electrical contact with the comet nitogren was converted into (deposits) of saltpeter. Air became filled with clouds of carbons or hydrocarbons, and Earth was enveloped in them during a number of years. These compounds of carbon precipitated slowly in the process of cooling.

South pole which was approximately between Greenland and Northern America, or in North America, changed its place by approximately 159 degrees. Its former place might be found by locating the center of the later ice-age-cover; ice age did came to close at that moment. The magnetic pole previous to that contact, or still earlier was probably coinciding with the geographic pole,

The comet changed its path too after the electrical contact with the Earth, its orbit became a stretched ellipse, and was semi-planet semi-comet. After 5o or 52 years it contacted for the second time with the Earth, and the Earth was brought out of rotation. This encounter in the fourteenth century before the present era, had similar effects as the previous contact. But there was no permanent change of direction of rotation, nor change of north and south. Since 34 centuries the sun rises in the East. After the second encounter the Earth was endangered every 50-52 years by this new planet of the solar system: this is the planet Venus. The above recorded calendar changes are effects of first a n d the second encounter.

In the ninth century Venus moving on a stretched ellipse contacted with Mars, brought Mars out of its path, and repeated this contact for a number of times, and since then has Venus occupied approximately its present position in the solar system, and ceased to endanger the Earth. But Mars brought out of its orbit became the dangerous neighbour of the Earth. In -747 the Earth contacted with Mars. The peril of contact repeated itself every fifteen years. At midnight March 23, -687, Earth contacted again with Mars. The catastrophe was of lesser dimensions that that of 14th or 15th century. Still Earth was brought out of its rotation, changed its orbit from one of 360 days to 365 and a quarter somewhat different days; the moon changed its orbit from 36 days to 29 days. Poles were displaced, Europe moving to the South, but the north and south poles did not exchange direction. Mars took its present position in the solar system . In contacts with Venus and Earth, Mars lost most of its organic life; it acquired some of the atmosphere of Venus (carbohydrate) and lost some of its atmosphere to our planet (probably argon and neon). Mars should be examined as to the presence of these rare gases. As a result of these contacts Earth, but also Venus and Mars are warmer than the solar radiation can account for. Anomaly in movemnet of Mercury, as well as the precession of the earth can have their origin in these displacements of planets.

[Source: Immanuel Velikovski - http://www.varchive.org/ce/affidavit.htm]


Scientific theory preaches that our Solar System condensed from a cloud of galactic dust. Mutual gravitational attraction is calculated to have drawn the nebulous dust particles toward a common center, inducing rotational velocity in the process. When density of dust at the center became high enough, pressure generated heat for the nuclear fusion of a star to develop. Centnfugal force flattened out the primordial nebula into a disc, and then streamers were thrown off to condense independently, forming a system of planets. Photographs of nebulas in deep space illustrate each stage of the evolutionary process, so why couldn't it have happened here just like that?

Well, to begin with, just about every planet in the Solar System exhibits some anomaly that proves the Nebular Hypothesis could not possibly have happened the way we are told in school.

If you refer to the figures supplied by Funk and Wagnall Encyclopedia, you will see that Jupiter has one tenth the diameter of the Sun, but it rotates a hundred times faster. Volume is diameter cubed, and momentum is one half of velo- city squared. Therefore, the Sun has a thousand times the volume of Jupiter, but Jupiter has five times the angular momentum. Jupiter is also a fairly dense planet, containing more mass than all the rest of the Solar System combined, outside of the Sun. Therefore, even after we make allowances for difference of radius, quick and dirty calculation indicates that Jupiter has about as much angular momentum as all the rest of the Solar System put together, including the Sun.

But that should not be! You see, if all the rotational energy in the Solar System is generated by gravitational collapse, then almost all the momentum in the Solar System must be concentrated in the Sun. While not altogether impossible, it is exceedingly unlikely for any planetary material to be flung away from a condensing core without losing the rotational momentum it acquired by condensing in the first place.

Venus rotates backward on its axis, and radiates more energy than it receives from the Sun. At some stretch of the definition, Venus can he regarded as a miniature star. Dust clouds whirling in space are almost certain to be as homogeneous as any other gaseous mixture, so why is the chemistry of Venus grossly different from all the other inner planets? And why did Venus just happen to lock into a three-two orbital-rotational ratio with the Earth without inducing corresponding changes in the angular momentum of our planet? We are, after all, more alike in size and mass than any other bodies in the system, so any gravitational friction between us should he settled by mutual compromise; instead, Venus gave in to us entirely.

The Earth has by far the largest satellite in the Solar System, and the farthest away. The moon, in fact, is not a satellite of the Earth at al1. Moon and Earth form a double planetary system, both going around the Sun while the Moon is perturbed to cross and recross the Earth's orbit. If you draw the orbits of the Earth and the Moon to scale, you will see for yourself that the Moon never curves around the Earth as the orbit of a true satellite must. The Moon always falls in a curve to the Sun - sometimes more, sometimes less. When the curve is tighter, the Moon accelerates and passes the Earth; when the curve is less, the Moon falls back until it is swept back across the Earth's orbit again.

The polar axes of the Earth and Mars are tilted nearly 30 degrees from the plane of their orbits. When a nebula condenses into a disc, all spins must be in the same plane. One of Mars's satellites, Phobos, completes an orbital revolution before Mars makes a polar rotation. Such excess of angular velocity makes Phobos one body in the solar system that could have been cast off by centrifugal force, but it is generally agreed to be a captured asteroid.

The Nebular Hypothesis does not account for the swarms of broken rocks and planetoids orbiting the sun between Mars and Jupiter.

Jupiter radiates more energy than it receives from the Sun, and seems to be growing hotter. Jupiter really is a small star. If so, then the Jovian satellites will eventually be the ideal homes for life to evolve in the Solar System, independently of the Earth. They already have an atmosphere and ice; they need only heat.

Saturn is lighter than water, and stands out with its well developed ring system. Faint rings have been found circling Jupiter and Uranus too, so it may be supposed that all giant planets have the gravitational intensity sufficient to hold interplanetary dust. The Nebular Hypothesis does not explain why Saturn should be so egregiously favored while Jupiter has practically no rings to show for itself.

The axis of Uranus and the revolutionary plane of all its satellites are at right angles to the plane of the rest of the solar system. As Uranus makes its annual rounds of the Sun, Uranians see the Sun spiral out from one pole until it circles the equator and then spiral in toward the opposite pole, then back again. While the Sun is over the equatorial region, day and night resemble our daily cycle on Earth, but during the season when the Sun shines directly over a pole, it is seen to circle around the horizon of the respective temperate region giving constant daylight for (Earth) years without interruption; the equator receives constant twilight while the Sun is over either pole. It is impossible for the velocities of the Uranian system to have evolved at right angles to the solar nebula that created it; it had to have been rolled over onto its side by an interplanetary collision.

The amount of energy required to rotate the axes of a spinning body 90 degrees is equal to its rotational momentum. Uranus is one of the giant planets; an impact sufficient to knock a giant planet onto its side could he delivered by nothing less than a direct impact with another giant planet or a near collision with a celestial body many times more massive. But no other planet can possibly exist in the same region of Uranus' solar orbit while traveling in the opposite direction, necessary if a collision is to take place. Therefore, the anomaly of Uranus can be accounted for most satisfactorily he proposing that an alien star entered the Solar System on a collision course from the interstellar reaches.

If the alien star were the same size as Uranus, a direct impact would be necessary to make the Uranian system turn right about. But a direct impact would have exploded both celestial bodies and nothing would exist in the Uranian orbit today except another ring of interplanetary rubble. On the other hand, an alien star the size of the Sun would have torn the entire Solar System to pieces by its massive gravitational field. Therefore, we can infer that the alien must have been about ten times the mass of Uranus, and probably traveling at a speed in the range of solar escape velocity.

Neptune has lost control of its satellites. The inner one revolves backward as a singular retrograde planetoid, while the outer satellite has the most eccentric orbit in the entire Solar System, not including the comets.

Because of its small size - and an orbit so eccentric that its radial differential is greater than the entire Solar System, inclusive of Neptune - it is generally accepted that Pluto must have been a satellite of Neptune that escaped into solar orbit. When professional astronomers admit this much and no more, they are as guilty of prevarication as ecologists who do not mention that oil is burned to charge the batteries of electric cars. You see, there is nothing at the outermost planetary orbit of the Solar System with sufficient energy to multiply the orbital velocity of Pluto by a factor of the square root of 2 in order that it can escape Neptune.

Unless you postulate an adventitious interplanetary collision course arriving from interstellar space! Every planet in the Solar System violates the physical requirements of the Nebular Hypothesis. An alien star is the obvious solution to a host of astronomical embarrassments. But it also blows a hole through the theory of planetary evolution. This is exactly what Immanuel Velikovsky did.

When Velikovsky published Worlds in Collision, he became the victim of most vehement and scurrilous persecution. To all of us plebes who tread streets of concrete, it doesn't make a damn bit of difference how the Solar System came to be in the shape it is in during our mayfly lives. One story is as good as another as long as it stops the kids from asking `How come?' when you want to put them to bed.

This story is not a scholarly examination of Velikovsky's theory to determine its validity. But if you look at some evidence everyone can see for himself with a toy telescope, it appears that authorized science is what remains after the editors have left all the contradictory evidence on the cutting-room floor. Let's run the astronomical scraps through the old Moviola to see if we can splice something together that will satisfy the popular demand for sex and violence without overlooking that the Solar System is as scrambled as an air terminal after a bomb blast.

As we fade in, Star Rangers scanning the heavens from their far-flung outposts on top of prehistoric ziggurats sight a `thing' from outer space on a collision course with the Solar System. Of course in prehistoric times, climbing the steps of a two hundred foot pyramid was the service range of the contemporary astronauts, but it doesn't really matter whether an expeditionary force intercepts the `thing' while it is still zillions of parsecs distant at Warp 7, or whether we merely wait until it comes within the Three-Mile Limit and reveals itself. I mean, unless you can evacuate the entire planet, there is nothing you can do about a cosmic `thing' anyway! You can bet your Trekkie button the Federation isn't going to tell the taxpayers the options have expired before everyone can plainly see for himself that it isn't pie in the sky. It is a matter of common knowledge that several asteroids have come close to the Earth in recent years, and who cared, as long as they stayed out of sight?

So when we cut in the next scene, we see that the `thing' is already in the Solar System, close enough for the ancients to see that it is a small dark star. As it passes by Neptune, at the Federation frontier, it is seen on the video scope to reach Neptune's outermost satellite, Triton, just past conjunction. The advent of massive gravitational attraction causes Triton to stop in orbit and plummet into its giant primary. As it falls, Triton gains enough velocity to reestablish itself in another orbit, but revolving in the opposite direction, as it would when negatively accelerated. This is where we find Triton today.

The middle satellite is approaching conjunction with the dark star, so it is accelerated positively until it leaves Neptune and goes into the planet business by itself as Pluto. And thus, O Best Beloved, is why we find Pluto returning to its original orbit around Neptune every year, to this very day, just as it must according to the law by Newton. The innermost satellite, Nereid, is in opposition, so the stellar fly-past merely perturbs it into extreme eccentricity.

Velocity in interstellar space is low on the cosmic speedometer, so the dark star is drawn into solar orbit by the close encounter with Neptune.

As it continues its wild fall toward the Sun, the dark star passes through Uranian territory. The titanic waves raised by the interplay of gravitational and electromagnetic fields draw long streamers of gas and particles from the alien and rocks the Uranian System onto its side. The star is now a comet, the most stupendous comet ever seen by mankind, with its dragon head containing more mass than the entire Solar System exclusive of the Sun, and a fiery dragon tail drawn halfway round the sky, illuminating all the heavens, day and night.

The most concentrated mass of the tail whirls around itself by the snap of the gravitational whip until it condenses into a ball surrounded by rings of the lighter trailing particles. And this, O Best Beloved, is why Saturn is a giant planet lighter than water, as if it were entirely atmospheric, and it is surrounded by a system of rings today. Vestiges of the cometary tail remain yet as rings surrounding Jupiter and Uranus.

Careening drunkenly now, the dark star strikes the next planet, shattering it to bits. The explosion throws the alien into a stable solar orbit and it takes up permanent residence in our system as the violent overlord, Jupiter. And this, O Best Beloved, is why we find most of the angular momentum in the solar system today to be in the Jovian System; it was the ante the dark star brought with it from the interstellar reaches so that it could sit in on our game. We lost the planet Krypton, but the Earth is saved in the final reel. The debris of the interplanetar explosion fills the orbit of Sol 5 with asteroids, a ring around the Sun like a petrified rainbow signifying God's favor with man. Lest you leave this theater thinking there is no scientific proof for this scenario, Dr Bill Ovendin, a professor at the University of British Columbia, recently programmed a computer with the orbits of all the known comets and discovered that they trace back to a single explosive point in the asteroid belt.

For human interest between the special-effects shots in interplanetary space, we segue Earthside, and pick up the legends overlooked by Velikovsky. In some early era Neptune and Uranus were visible. They were the original titans, and it was natural that Uranus, being the nearest and brightest, would he regarded as the creator of the heavens.

Saturn was called Kronos by the ancient Greeks. Kronos became Chronos, the God of Time. If Saturn has ever occupied the orbit now holding Jupiter, Saturn's original period would be twelve years, and its location in the zodiac would tell the houses of the horoscope. The planet would serve as a celestial time keeper for astrologers, a profession enjoying the highest social status in those days. As the new cosmic timekeeper, it was natural for Saturn to usurp the liege formerly bestowed upon Uranus; imperial jealousies are never generously disposed, so it was natural for the Titans to be buried in the black of deep space. Neptune being put out deeper than Uranus, Poseidon became god of the oceans.

But kronos is also the etymological root of corona, meaning crown. Encircled by shining rings, Saturn is indeed the crowned planet, deserving recognition as the supreme god. Now, the rings of Saturn are barely visible to the sharpest eyes; a simple magnifying mirror will bring them into view. If, however, Saturn ever sat on the throne of the Jovian orbit during an interim reign while the crown prince was off to the wars with Krypton, the crown of Kronos would be clearly visible throughout the Solar System. The Saturnian crown is still used artistically to represent the halo of angels, so we may suspect that men once saw the Kings Father directly.

Saturn is said to have eaten his children, fatally overlooking Jupiter. This part of the Greek myth could be describing knots of the original cometary tail condensing into visible satellites before spiraling into their primary as the comet settled into stable orbits. The surviving rings we see today may be merely the last vestige of a multijeweled crown.

The myths indicate that there were several changes in the planetary orbits during the creation of the heavens as we now see them. The various poetic histories conform to the hypothesis of a dark star entering the Solar System because it is unlikely for all planets to be aligned so that everything happened during the course of a single preorbital trajectory. Once caught in a cometary orbit after being trapped on Neptune's gravitational trident, Jupiter probably made hundreds of elliptical circuits between successive encounters of the catastrophic kind, leaving plenty of breathing space for mankind to recover between cosmic disasters and make up different myths.

Here is a synopsis of Immanuel Velikovsky's scenario: When Jupiter collided with Krypton, a mass was blown out denser than the Saturnian comet, including some of the rocky core of the doomed planet. The jetsam formed a new, smaller comet swinging tightly around the Sun on an orbit of fifty-four years. Because space is tight in the downtown section of the solar community (hold tight while we change metaphors again), this comet had close and frequent encounters with all the inner planets. On each strafing run, the inner planets were peppered with meteors. The craters are dearly visible today on Mercury, the Moon, and Mars. The terrestrial craters have been obliterated by our fertile atmosphere, but the fracturing of the Canadian Shield in concentric circles around Hudson's Bay indicates that the northern sea is a meteor crater created by an impact powerful enough to shake the Earth on its axis and probably obliterate large life forms over half a hemisphere; smaller craters pock the entire Atlantic Coast of North America. After a pyrotechnic exchange with Mars, which must have rivaled the spectacle of Jupiter and Uranus for mankind, the daughter comet swung into stable orbit around the Sun as the planet Venus.

The persecution of Velikovsky is most determined from astronomers because it destroys the steady-state theory necessary to make coherent sense out of current measurements. It is necessary to believe that all extant physical activity occurs everywhere at all times at the same rate in order to have a theoretical science and get paid for teaching it. Otherwise all you have is engineering and science fiction. The physical evidence on which Velikovsky has been prosecuted by the establishment is not proclaimed to the public; the excuse is that the public does not understand physics. The result is that Velikovsky was given no chance to defend himself in a manner that habeas corpus is supposed to provide, nor could he put judgment to a public jury.

Insofar as I have been able to get any answer from the enemies of Velikovsky, they base their case on one of Newton's laws conserving momentum. A material body disturbed in its orbit must return to the point of disturbance on each subsequent revolution. The Solar System preserves far too much order today for any collision courses to have occurred in the past, much less the historical past. Most physicists, who are specialists, are satisfied that the law is inviolate. But Einstein opened a completely new and radical conception of Newton's laws.

The solution to Velikovsky's problem is implicated with the solution to another irritating problem bothering astronomers for over two hundred years, Bode's Law of Planetary Harmonics.

Since it became possible to calculate the distance separating planets with more than accidental precision, it has been known that each planetary orbit is twice as far from the Sun as the one nearer; credit for measuring the intervals has been accorded to the German astronomer Johann Elert Bode, for getting his ratios recognized by publication in a hard-core scientific journal. Bode found that if an Astronomical Unit is established as 9,000,000 miles, the following multiples of that Unit are measured between the planets: Sun 4 Mercury 3 Venus 3 Earth 6 Mars 12 Asteroids 24 Jupiter 48 Saturn 96 Uranus 96 Neptune 96 Pluto.

Saturn was the outer limit of the known system when Bode did his number, so the discovery of Uranus was accompanied by great professional excitement to see that Bode's Law was followed indefinitely. But when Neptune and Pluto were discovered to be separated by intervals of 96 Units each, the professional verdict decided that the Law had broken down; and respectable orthodoxy regards the Theory of Planetary Harmonics as an empirical accident with no significance whatsoever.

Upon immediate inspection, the interval between each planet, from Venus to Uranus, increases by a constant factor of two. Bode's Law would he indisputable were it not that Mercury is twice the distance from Venus that the progression demands, and Neptune divides the orbital space between Uranus and Pluto by two. Two is the constant factor throughout, but why does the operation change at the extremes? An almost perfect law like this is what keeps scientists awake more than the 2 A.M. nursing.

Now, in order to understand the conformation of the Solar System, it is exceedingly difficult to avoid the theory of cosmic collisions. In order to understand what happens in the process of cosmic collisions, it is necessary to prove Bode's Law. In order to prove Bode's Law, you must understand relativity. Professional scientists insist that no one can understand relativity - not even Einstein was able to do that. The impossible will not take a bit longer. Let me show you.

If you find a thin, vibrant disc, dust the surface with powder, and make it resonate to a musical tone, the powder will move into concentric windrows, spaced a wavelength apart. As the circles approach the center, radial vibrations break up the circular pattern. What you see is a model representing the mechanics of Bode's Law and the General Theory of Relativity.

What you see happening is produced by waves of sound traveling through the disc in all directions. As the waves move, they carry the dust with them. Where two waves meet in opposite directions, a wave pattern is created that does not travel. The pattern is called a standing wave. The standing wave beats up and down in the middle of its length, while there is no motion at all on both ends. As an example, two children swinging a skipping rope between them are making a standing-wave pattern with the length of the rope. The wave energy travels back and forth between the two arms swinging the rope; if the traveling waves coming from both ends are not synchronized, the standing-wave pattern breaks down so that you can see the wave motion travel from one end to the other and back again. A ring strung on the rope will be driven by the waves from the loop in the middle to the nodes at the ends.

Most of us armchair physicists will argue at great length before being stirred to dust a disc with powder or observe children skipping rope. But if you will ring for your maid to bring you tea you will see concentric standing waves on the surface of the fluid in the cup when she puts the tray down on your end table with sufficient impact to generate vibrations.

Those of you who study any one of several versions of this model will eventually notice that the rings representing planetary orbits around the Sun are spaced equal distances apart, whereas the planetary orbits have a difference between each orbit established by the factor of two. The reason the rings of powder on the disc are equally spaced is that the vibration is supplied by waves of equal length. The field of energy constituting the Solar System is defined by waves of all lengths, like white sound. When a full-frequency spectrum of sound is used to generate standing waves around a focal point the longer waves are superimposed through the shorter waves amplifying them in some places and canceling them out in others. The harmonic beats where all waves coincide to amplify and cancel in the same places form rings separated by octave intervals, just as we see in the Solar System.

Since Niels Bohr published the planetary model of the atom, the atom and the Solar System have been understood to be models of each other. Since Erwin Schrdinger proved the wave equations of quantum physics, the atom has been recognized as a standing-wave structure composed of an infinite spectrum of random vibrations. All we have done is say that if the Solar System is a cosmic atom, and if the atom is a standing-wave structure, then the Solar System must be a standing-wave structure too.

Well, if an atom is the essential unit of material, and if an atom is a standing-wave structure, then all material must be standing-wave structures. Therefore, if the solar system is a standing-wave structure, then the entire gravitational field of the Sun must be solid material. The only difference between the material of the Sun's gravitational field and the Earth we stand on is density. The wavelengths of gravity are so long that we can walk through them as if the standing waves were insubstantial, like we walk through air. Many people will snort that this deduction is preposterous; the more schooling you have, the more likely you will insist that it isn't so. But have you forgotten that material, by definition, is identical to mass? Einstein's General Theory of Relativity proves that the Sun's gravitational field possesses mass and functions as a massive structure. Einstein knew it all along; he just stopped talking at this point.

Now, why do you suppose that the curtain of silence is dropped at the point where Einstein and Bode and Velikovsky all meet with mutually supporting calculations?

Well, when Einstein published his equation E=mc2, he proved that all material can be converted into energy, the amount of energy depending upon the wavelength of the standing waves forming the material. This means that the Sun's gravitational field - filling all of interplanetary space - is solid energy, just like uranium, waiting to be mined. Now you can see why Einstein is supposed to be incomprehensible, and relativity is taught to make sure no one can understand it. And now you can see why Bode's Law cannot be allowed to be recognized. And now you can understand one reason why Velikovsky had to be given the deStalinization treatment. You see, the military-industrial-financial establishment can stake out a monopoly on uranium, enabling them to charge whatever OPEC demands for oil, but everyone has free access to the Sun's gravitational field. As Al Capp illustrated with his shmoos, industrial society cannot survive if the universe supplies mankind with the necessities of life free of charge.

The military-industrial establishment published the first release of atomic energy from uranium in 1945. Would you like to guess when Einstein's equations were proven by releasing the energy contained in the Sun's gravitational field? According to information available to me, Nikola Tesla gained insight into spacic energy at the beginning of this century, before petroleum was used for much except kerosene lamps; by 1925 he was ready with experimental proofs. Reports have reached me of about a dozen private parties making similar discoveries in their own way; they were all given the deep six, like Tesla got. The latest word is that a party in the Northeast, calling itself X-Tec, is trying to get into the consumer market by generating spacic energy from the Sun's gravitational field; we'll see if it survives any longer than its predecessors. In the meantime, the Soviet military-industrial establishment has managed to secure a monopoly on the free air their citizens are allowed to breathe, so it has no reservations about implementing Tesla's theories for generating electric power from the energy of empty space, and they are proceeding apace while Americans are building windmills to get the same energy the hard way.

The most completely documented chronicles of the development of spacic energy in America is reported in the book, The Sea of Energy, published privately by the son of the inventor in Salt Lake City. As far back as l914, before the First World War, Henry Moray, an electrical engineer, perceived that solar activity generated radio waves in the Earth's atmosphere. An antenna transforms the electromagnetic waves into a standing electrical wave in the conductor. The energy of this wave is amplified by resonance to provide the power for the primitive radio sets Moray played with. From the operation of the crystal radio, Henry Moray acquired an understanding of the Sun's gravitational field as a cosmic standing wave structure supported by incredibly high-frequency vibrations from the quantum field.

Natural germanium crystals were used for tuning the early radio receivers. Moray inferred that there was something in crystal geometry that could resonate in tune with the quantum field and transform the field energy into electricity by harmonic amplification. So Moray sought the purest germanium crystals chemists could provide, always complaining that the crystallization was not fine enough. Once the alternating current in his crystals was fed into a step-down transformer, Moray drew enough power to supply household appliances with 500 kilowatts indefinitely.

As a reward for bringhng his invention to the United States Government, Moray became the target of hired assassins. His laboratory was destroyed and his credibility ruined so that the design of his `valve' was lost with his death. We can infer, however, that the essential design must be so simple that you can pick up all the components to build your own basement electric power generator from Radio Shack for less than one thousand dollars. After all, in those days not even Moray had enough knowledge of electronics to build a transistor, and the complexity of a TV circuit was beyond conception. However he did it, he tapped infinite energy, like the technologists of Atlantis, without pollution or explosion from the Sun's gravitational field with a circuit essentially no more complicated than a glorified crystal radio receiver.

Now that we have made the engineering discoveries which are the goal of this story, we can return along the trail on which we came to prove that the evidence for the prosecution of Immanuel Velikovsky by the defenders of the established faith is unconstitutional. At the same time, we shall make further discoveries opening new possibilities for more fantastic engineenng.

We see the powder bounce up and down on the vibrating disc until it settles at the static nodes of the standing waves. Obviously there is a tangible flow from the loops to the nodes. Therefore, any particle supported by the vibrating field will flow from the loops to the nodes like a chip on a stream of water. The loops can be represented as hills and the nodes as valleys for purposes of illustration, but we can see there are no real hills or valleys in a gravitationally defined space; there is only a flow of energy represented by velocity gradients. So any celestial body let loose in the solar gravitational field will `gravitate' toward the nodal orbits as if attracted by some mysterious force. You will recognize that this model is the very representation of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.

Now you know why a planet finds an orbit at a specific location in the solar gravitational field, but you may wonder why it revolves around the Sun in that orbit. If you examine the vibrating plate intently, you will eventually discern that the flow of energy does not stop at the nodes, but undergoes an abrupt right angle rotation of velocity with a transformation of warve frequency and speed. The flow now circles the orbital path, carrying the planet with it like a log on a stream of water between banks.

A scientific intelligence can be gauged by the point at which a person accepts an answer as final and satisfying. So we continue to ask why a planet occupies a specific location in its orbit instead of any other location along the length of the circuit. Well, more inspection eventually reveals that the entire nodal circle vibrates as a linear standing-wave structure, composed of all frequencies, like a circular violin string strummed by a breeze. The fundamental frequency of the orbital resonance is subdivided into harmonic intervals, defined by loops and nodes of different energy levels. Residual discords in the harmonics cause the pattern to revolve around the field center. Therefore, once a body is carried by the solar gravitational field to an orbital node, it will be carried farther in the orbit until it settles into the deepest node in the circuit. That is where it will stay as the entire gravitational field revolves.

If this model is true, then there must be a node of the second gravitational harmonic of the Earth's orbit directly opposite us, on the other side of the Sun where we can never see it. This calculation is the probable source of the myth of a counter-Earth. The myth, in fact, is true, but its proof is another story for another book. As far as we are concerned here, astronomers have proven that the counter-Earth cannot possibly exist because there as no evidence of the gravitational effects its mass must produce. The reason the counter-Earth is not found where we see it is that the space in which it is calculated to exist happens to be where the fundamental loop also exists. The fundamental loop cancels the secondary node with enough energy left over to raise a sizable gravitational `hill.'

But the fundamental loop flows in both directions around the orbit to the tertiary nodes, a pair of gravitational nodes located 120 degrees in both directions from us. Therefore we should expect to find smaller masses of interplanetary material caught in these two depressions. In fact, astronomers have observed aggregations of interplanetary debris collected at both these locations. When we see interplanetary bodies attracted to locations where no central masses exist to establish a gravitational field, we have the proof that gravity is inherent in the flow of energy through space rather than a mysterious force generated by a massive body.

We are forced to the further deduction that Jupiter does not possess the most powerful gravitational field in the Solar System because it possesses almost all of the mass, outside of the Sun. It is possible for Jupiter to have been created the most massive body in the Solar System because the greatest gravitational flow in the Sun's field is into that location. Jupiter's gravitational field would exist at that location even if Jupiter were not there to occupy the space.

Another proof for the model is derived from the empirical fact that all planets sweep an equal area of their orbital planes in equal times. Momentum is a time function, and the equation for momentum is identical to the equation for circular area. Therefore, the angular momentum of each orbit is identical throughout the solar gravitational field. The energy flow from the loops to the nodes is in direct proportion to the area of the orbits. The area of the orbits increases at a ratio equal to half the square of the radius. First sight tells you that the momentum of each orbit should increase by one half the square of the radius if all the energy, from the loop area flows into the nodal line. But the solar field is a compound standing-wave structure; the wavelength of the standing waves increases in direct ratio with the radius. The formula equating energy with wavelength states that momentum varies inversely with frequency, so that the difference in energy represented by area is exactly balanced by the difference in energy represented by wavelength. Therefore, the momentum of the solar field must be constant throughout.

A final proof is that escape velocity is the square root of 2 times orbital velocity. Because the increase in field wavelength is continuous along the gravitational radius, the loop between successive orbits is not exactly between them. The peak of the loop divides the inter orbital radius into fractions defined by the square root of 2, like the intensity of light falls off from a point source. An increase of orbital velocity by a factor of the square root of 2 gives a planet exactly the amount of momentum it needs to surmount the gravitational hill confining it to its orbital vally; and once over the divide, it is downhill all the way to the next star.

The planets occupy the deepest nodes in the solar gravitational field. But the solar space is filled with an infinite number of higher harmonic nodes, each of which is capable of attracting and holding a mass of material. But the higher the harmonic, the less energy flows into it, so the smaller the mass it can attract and retain.

The gravitational node holding the Moon, for example, is so much weaker than the one holding the Earth that by the time a spaceship acquires enough velocity to escape the Earth, it has far too much momentum for the Moon to hold. You may think that landing on the Moon must be as easy as falling out of bed once an Apollo spaceship passes over the gravitational divide and begins to drop down onto the Moon. But this isn't true. Unless the space shot is aimed for a direct hit on the surface of the Moon, anything leaving the Earth must fly right past the Moon into solar orbit. Getting down is the hardest part.

Residual discords in the solar geometry causes the gravitational hollows to wander along courses described by the Drunkard's Walk, calculated by the mathematics of Probability. The amount of indirection is directly proportional to the value of the harmonic fraction. This means that the major harmonics represented by the planetary orbits will manifest negligible perturbations during any historic period, while the locations of higher harmonic nodes wander around with increasing randomness. Harmonic coincidence of wandering nodes result in periodic intersections; and once again, the lower the harrmonic, the longer the period between intersections, while the higher harmonics are mixing together continuously. A small body caught in the shallow depression of a high node will be tipped out when confluence with a harmonic loop causes a temporary reversal of gravitational flow. If a particle is small enough, it can be carried by waves from node to node throughout interstellar space before it gets trapped by the powerful energy flow of a low harmonic. In fact, interstellar space is filled with dust floating around like this. Only the confluence of a low-harmonic loop with a low-harmonic node is sufficient to reverse the gravitational flow keeping a planet in its orbit. When that happens, planets, stars, and even galaxies are set on collision courses. Human history would be briefer than our two thousand years if low-harmonic loops intersected with low-harmonic nodes more often.

Now we can prove why Venus maintains a near-circular orbit today even though it is possible for her to have arrived in our skies within human memory after a series of catastrophic interplanetary collisions. Celestial bodies of planetary mass gravitate quickly to low-harmonic nodes, and low-harmonic nodes are inherently stable in orbit. Lighter celestial bodies can be retained more or less indefinitely in a succession of higher harmonic nodes; the higher the harmonic, the more eccentric and unstable the orbit will be. This is why we find the planets to follow regular orbits of circular dimensions while the mot eccentric and unstable bodies in the Solar System are also the lightest and most vaporous - the comets.

The flow of energy along high-harmonic orbits, not concentric with the field's center, are probably the `rivers of energy' calculated by Professor Eric Laithwaite, which he hoped to harness with his gyroscopes. Once these currents are charted, they can be used to carry vehicles throughout the universe like floating on a cosmic jet stream across oceans of space and even time. But this is not a prevenient discovery, either. The Orientals have always known of the existence of Ley Lines, and they use Ley Lines to control the flow of energy in their social and personal space.

Meanwhile, back at the Kangaroo Courthouse, let's see how Velikovsky is making out with his defense. If he uses the proof of Bode's Law to disallow the invocation of Newton's law, Velikovsky runs the risk of incriminating himself by failing to foresee all the inevitable consequences of General Relativity. You see, all the octave orbits are occupied in the solar subdivision. If Venus settled on the residential lot at 12 Sunshine Valley, she probably had to evict a previous tenant. Whom do you suppose got bumped? When Venus arrived, the Moon moved in with Mother, and she has been spending the nights with us ever since. Plato mentions a time when there was no moon in the sky, called the Preselenite Era.

As soon as you began to play musical orbits with the planets, the distribution of angular momentum in the Solar System is disturbed. When Venus brought additional energy from interstellar space, it meant that the gravitational hollow at #3 Sunnydale Circle must have drifted away from the Sun, while the revolution of the Moon made further adjustments to maintain Conservation. If the proposition of interplanetary collision is essentially valid, the Earth must have been closer to the sun during a previous geophysical era. Merely a few megamillion miles nearer would have added enough extra insolation to provide the Earth with an allover suntan from pole to pole. Geologists know that the Earth did have a tropical climate during the Paleozoic Age. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain this anomaly, but they all require special cases involving a great deal of critical ignorance to remain tenable. Special cases do not a science make; the theory of interplanetary collision eliminates all the obvious anomalies with a single, simple, and provable mechanism.

Now if the Earth were forced to leave the Sunshine Coast of the Solar Estates and rebuild in the cooler hinterlands, whom do you suppose we displaced. It had to be Mars. If Mars were ever closer to the Sun than it is right now, it must have enjoyed the most invigorating climate in the entire Solar System while dinosaurs were sweltering in the swamps of the Tethys Sea. If life is a natural and inevitable process of planetary evolution, intelligent life had to appear on Mars before it began anywhere else.

Mars is large enough to hold an atmosphere capable of supporting terrestrial life forms. There is incontrovertible evidence of large flows of water on Mars. Where you find heat and light and toil and water, you must find life, too, or else you must throw out the Theory of Human Evolution from natural causes and return to Divine Creation.

The professionally published explanation for the evidence of liquid water flowing on Mars is that volcanic heat produced massive eruptions of water from sub-Arean rocks which streamed in a deluge for thousands of miles, carving canyons dozens of miles deep in the Martian continent. The professional statement may, in fact, be true, but the authorities cannot expect any high school kid to believe it unless a lot of obvious contradictions are accounted for.

To begin with, it is almost as cold as liquid air on Mars; that is carbon dioxide we see frozen at the polar caps through our toy telescopes. Water is not going to flow very far from the source of eruption unless the entire hemisphere is warmed by volcanism to keep the water liquid. Enough heat to warm an entire hemisphere for swimming is not localized volcanism. It is either planetary convulsions or else it is climate.

Next, the range of temperature in which water can flow any distance over the land surface of Mars is restricted to the range of human comfort. Water cannot exist on Mars today because of the near-vacuum conditions, but even if Mars had all the air it could hold, the boiling temperature of water would still be so low that it would vaporize from the heat of volcanism before it flowed any distance.

Finally, the surface gravity of Mars is so low that water isn't going to flow rapidly enough to gouge canyons in its path unless it is constantly cascading. The canyons of Mars are not the kind of erosion carved by sheets of cascades, but more like the Grand Canyon requiring a constant flow of water in the same channel for millions of years. This condition could not have been satisfied unless there was enough air on Mars to make a Tibetan feel at home, while the climate was no warmer than the USA and no colder than Canada. The absence of densely grouped meteor bombardment and other evidence of erosion subsequent to the carving of the Arean canyons indicates that Mars enjoyed a terrestrial climate very recently in astronomical time - probably within human memory. Mars probably lost its air, water, and climate by a sudden catastrophe involving heat intense enough to flash its oceans into water vapor.

If Velikovsky's scenario were staged during human memory, the people who saw the action were not living on Earth. They were Martians. As Mars is older than the Earth in its physical evolution, people on Mars may be expected to he more advanced technologically than we are now. Once they saw that alien squatters were going to break their leasehold on Sunny Acres, everyone who could raise the price of a ticket on the space ark would pack their luggage with Kodachrome, disconnect the household utilities, and hop over to the Mediterranean Riviera for the Ice Age - bringing their pyramid and crystal technology with them.

Support for the hypothesis of interplanetary colonization is found in comparative anatomy. The human animal is rather poorly adapted to conditions on Earth. The sunlight is too bright for our eyes and skin, our backbones are too long, our feet are too weak, and our weight is ruinous to posture. If all creatures' morphology is determined by an evolutionary adaptation to its environment we are best adapted for comfortable living on Mars, providing the climate were sweetened.

The white race appears to be new to this planet; civilization appears to have arrived suddenly and fully blown, then decaying for millennia after its initial appearance before recovering to our present eminence. The prehistoric aborigines of the cradles of civilization say they were conquered by Aryan invaders. The word Aryan is a variation of Arean, and Arean means Martian. There is a tribe in the Mideast who claims its ancestors came from Mars. As myths go this one requires a sophistication of concept not proper to a primitive tribe; the Earth must be recognized as a planet unsupported in empty space and the bright reddish star must he recognized as another world.

The most interesting evidence for the Martian origin of the white race, if not an extraterrestrial immigration for all of man kind is provided by science reporter Gay Gaer Luce in Body Time. Biologists acknowledge that the vital rhythms of all creatures are established by their place of origin; this is why subequatorial plants bloom for us in the North at Christmas, and species entrained to the periods of the Moon are believed to have evolved in the tidal ocean. When experimental human subjects are isolated from all terrestrial rhythms as much as possible to discover the free period of the human body, it has been found that most people settle into a daily rhythm of sleep and work of twenty-four hours and forty minutes. Twenty-four hours and forty minutes is the daily period of Mars.

The mechanics of evolution make it practically impossible for any species to develop without integration with its environment yet this is just what we have managed to do. We are profoundly out of order with the rest of terrestrial life. Everywhere we go we destroy the natural environment with wholesale insensitivity to its rhythms and balances. We are reconstructing the entire surface of this planet to suit our alien dimensions. The distress we stir on this Earth may be due to the fact we don't belong here.

[Source: T. B. Pawlicki - How to Build a Flying Saucer And Other Proposals in Speculative Engineering, chapter 3: Beyond Velikovsky: Einstein's Relativity Demonstrated, Mining Pure Energy from Empty Space, and the Green Hills of Mars]