Glaser - The Complete Chemist - Mineralis 2 - Metallis

Of Gold.

4. The Purification of Gold by Antimony.

Take therefore an ounce of Gold, such as the Goldsmiths use; put it into a Crucible amongst burning coals in a wind Furnace, and when it is very red, put to it by little and little four ounces of good Antimony in powder, which will melt immediately, and at the same time devour the Gold, (which otherwise is of very difficult Fusion, by reason of its most exact composition:) when the whole is melted like water, and the matter sparkles, ‘tis a sign that the Antimony is at work upon the impurities of the Gold. Wherefore leave it a little upon the fire; then cast it nimbly into an Iron Crucible, which has been to that end before heated, and smeared with a little Oil. When the matter is pour’d in, strike the Crucible with the Tongs, to make the Regulus descend to the bottom. After ‘tis a little cooled, separate the Regulus from the dross. Weigh it, and put it to melt in a good large Crucible, adding to it by little and little double its weight of Saltpeter: then cover the Crucible; so that the coals get not into it, and giving a quick fire, the Saltpeter consumes all that remain’d of the Antimony with the Gold; and the Gold settles at the bottom of a most beautiful colors, and pure. You may put it into a crucible hot as it is, or else let the Crucible cool, and then break it to separate the Ingot from the Salts. This manner of purifying the Regulus of Gold is not common and ordinary, but preferable before the rest, because done speedily: but ‘tis practiced only in small quantity. The common fashion is, to put the Gold in a flat Crucible upon a melting fire, and blow continually till the Antimonial part be exhaled. This not only requires time, but exposes you to hurtful exhalations of the Antimony, which is always good to avoid.

Aurum Fulminans.

Reduce into thin plates a dram of fine Gold; put these plates into a Matrass, and pour on them three drams of good Aqua regia, then set the Matrass upon hot Sand, till the Gold be dissolv’d. Pour the Solution into a Vessel wherein there is three or four ounces or more of Fountain water; then pour to it drop by drop some Oil of Tartar made by Deliquation till the Ebullition ceases; which is a sign that the Corrosion of the Aqua Regia is destroyed by the Liquor of the Salt Alkali of Tartar, which, as other Alkalies, breaks the force of Corrosive Spirits, so that they are constrained to let fall to the bottom the body which they held in form of Liquor. The same happens here to the Gold: for if you let it settle a while, it will precipitate it self to the bottom of the water; which will swim above as clear as Crystal, and is to be poured off by inclination. You must pour warm water upon the powder, to take away all the Acrimony of the Salts; and when ‘tis settled, pour that water off, and put more upon it. This do so often, till the powder of Gold be well edulcorated; which is known by its being insipid. Lastly, put it into a Funnel with filtering paper, through which the Liquor passes, and leaves behind it the powder of Gold, which must be dried carefully by a slow heat: for it easily takes fire, and bouncing like a Gun, flies away.

This impetuous action proceeds from the mixture of the Salts and Spirits which enter into the Dissolvent and the Precipitant of the Gold, and which reduce it into atoms. Of which Salts and Spirits, the Gold by its reaction and its fixity, retains some portion, though imperfectly; it drives out the spirituous parts, which the Gold and the Corpuscles of Salt of Tartar desire to retain; from which conflict the great noise ensues.

This Fulmination may be hindered several ways, all which tend only either to break the force of the nitrous Spirits, or to separate them from the Salt of Tartar, or a good quantity whereof always remains with the fulminating Gold. For after all the Lotions that can be made of it, it will be commonly found a fourth, or almost a third part heavier than the simple Gold which was dissolved and precipitated. Wherefore to destroy the activity of this Salt, beat the fulminating Gold together with three times as much of flower of Sulphur, and put this mixture upon a small fire in a Crucible: the Sulphur will burn and exhale, during which its saline acid parts which involved the Gold, and carries them away, and the Gold will remain in the bottom of the Crucible, of the same weight as at first. You may reduce it into a Metallick body, with the addition of a little Borax by a fire of fusion; or else you may mix the fulminating Gold with Oyl of Vitriol or Sulphur, or with the Spirit of Sea Salt, and put them boldly in a Crucible upon the fire without fearing anything; for their acid Spirits change the nature of the Salt of Tartar.

Some employ this Powder in diseases proceeding from corruption of the Blood; for by sweat and insensible transpiration it drives the venom from the Center. The Dose is from 2 to 8 grains, in some Conserve, or in the Extract of Juniper Berries.

A Diaphoretick Powder of Gold.

Dissolve in three Drams of good Aqua Regia one Dram of fine Gold, and when it is dissolved add to it one Dram of well refined Salt-peter, which dissolve also in it. In this Liquor moisten some small pieces of very fine Linen, and till all the Liquor be imbibed by them. Dry them with gentle heat of Sand; then set them on fire with a little spark of fire, which they take as easily as Tinder; and they will be reduced into light Ashes of a dark red; which being cold, sweep up carefully with a Hare’s Foot or a Feather, and keep it for use.


Of Silver.
The Purification of Silver by the Cupple.
This operation differs not from the purifying of Gold by the Cupple. For the Lead carries away all other Metals, reducing them either into Dross or Smoke; only Gold and Silver resist it. Place a good Cupple with its Muffle in a little Furnace made for this purpose, the Figure of which is in the third Table. In defect of such a Furnace, place the Muffle in a Wind-Furnace: put fire round about, and over it; which must be gentle in the beginning, that the Cupple may heat by degrees, otherwise it will crack. When it is all red by increasing the Fire by little and little, put first into it an equal quantity of Lead, and let it melt and boil, to the end the Cupple may begin to imbibe it. Then put in also the Silver, which easily melts in the Lead. Continue the Fire till the Lead be exhaled and have carried away with it the impure Metals wherewith the Silver was mixed before: Then the Silver will be seen coagulated, and remaining alone very pure upon the Cupple.

Vitriol of Luna.

Take an ounce of Cuppled Silver reduced into little grains, or thin Plates and three ounces of Spirit of Nitre. Put them together into a Matrass upon hot Sand, and leave them so till the Silver be dissolved; pour the warm Solution into a little Gourd or Cupping-Glass, warmed a little before, lest the heat of the Solution break it. Leave it to cool some hours, and the Liquor will turn almost all into Crystals, but some will remain not Crystallized this first time. Therefore evaporate half away upon Sand in a Glass vessel, and leave it to Crystallize in the cold. Or if you be contented with the first Crystals, pour the floating Liquor into an Earthen Pan, wherein there is water and a piece of Copper; so all the Silver contained in the Liquor will fall down in Powder, which you may wash and dry, and then melt with a little Saltpeter, and Tartar in a little Crucible, to restore it its first Body. Those first Crystals must be dried by a gentle Fire, and kept very carefully in a Glass Vessel well stop’d. They are called the Salt or Vitriol of Luna, and are of a very bitter taste. They are used chiefly for diseases of the Brain, or for Dropsies: They purge kindly enough. The Dose is from three to eight Grains in a Glass of Liquor proper to the Disease, for such as can bear their bitterness; or else in some Conserve, drinking after it some appropriate Liquor, to temper the Acrimony left in these Crystals by the Spirit of Nitre.

A Tincture of Luna.

Reduce an ounce of Cuppled Silver into small Grains, Plates, or Filings, which dissolve in three ounces of Good Aqua Fortis, made of Saltpeter and Vitriol. The Solution pour into the Salt water or Sea water well Filtered and clear; and the Silver will immediately be precipitated in a white Powder, which you must let settle together in the bottom. Then pour off the Liquor by inclination, and instead thereof pour on some very clear Spring water warm; stir the Silver about in it; then let it settle again, and pour off this Water likewise by inclination. Repeat this washing till the Powder of Silver be free from all Acrimony. Then dry gently, and put it into a fit Matrass, adding to it half an ounce of the Volatile Salt of Urine, and twelve ounces of Spirit of Wine well Tartarized, i.e. well rectified upon Salt of Tartar. Put upon this Matrass another Matrass, whose mouth must enter into that which contains the matter to make a Vessel called Bocia centra bocians, or Double Bolts-head; lute the joynts exactly with a wet Bladder. Digest the matter in a very gentle heat of a vaporous Bath of Horse-dung for ten days, in which time the Menstruum will extract the Tincture of Silver and become of a Sky-colors. Pour off the Tincture by inclination, filter it, and put it into a little Glass-Gourd with its head; which Lute well together, and place in a vaporous Bath; and having drawn off three parts by Distillation, the Tincture will remain in the bottom, which you must keep carefully in a Viol well stopt.

This Tincture is used with good success in Epilepsies, Apoplexies, Frenzies, and other Diseases of the Brain, in some convenient Liquor. The Dose is from four to fifteen drops. After you have drawn this Tincture, you find in the bottom of the Matrass a Calx of Silver, which may be reduced into a body by the following mixture. Take an ounce of powdered Pebbles, an ounce of Tartar, two drams of powdered Charcoal, and four ounces of good Saltpeter. Put this mixture by little and little into a Crucible heated red hot in the Fire, and it will soon melt great agitation; which being over, pour this melted Salt into a hot Mortar and there let it cool; you shall have a hard mass, of which take a weight equal to your Calx of Silver; powder them together, and melt them in a good Crucible, and the Calx will be reduced into a body, being otherwise hardly reducible, by reason of the Sea-Salt wherewith it was precipitated, and of the volatile Salt of Urine, with which it was digested. For those two Salts make the Silver very volatile. And if you should go about to melt the said Calx, without this mixture of fixed Salt, which destroys the impression of the volatile Salts, it would fly almost all away through the violence of the fire of Fusion.

Lapis Infernalis, or a Perpetual Caustic.

Take two ounces of Cuppled Silver; reduce either into Granules, Plates, or Filings; dissolve it in a Matrass with its double or triple of good Aqua-fortis; pour the Solution into a Gourd covered with its Alembick, or rather into a little Porringer of strong earth not varnished [glazed], and open; evaporate it in Sand till it come to a yellow Salt, and place it in a fire of Sand, and draw off about half the Aqua fortis. The Water which comes off will be very weak because the Silver retains the stronger Spirits of the Aqua fortis. Leave the Vessel some hours to cool, and you shall find the matter remaining in the bottom of the Gourd in form of a Salt, which put into a good German Crucible somewhat large, because the matter swells at first boiling, and would be apt to run over and be lost. Set the Crucible upon a little fire, till the Ebullitions be passed, and the matter be fallen to the bottom; about which time augment the fire a little, and you shall see the matter like Oil in the bottom of the Crucible. Pour it into a very clean Casting mould a little heated before, and you shall find it hard as Stone; keep it in a Box for use. But for greater convenience, to the end the Surgeon may have pieces of several sizes to employ in hollow Ulcers, of the bigness of the Tag of a Point, or other Figure according to occasion cut the matter before it be quite cold, and leave it in such figures as you think fit.

It may be used for Cancers, and to eat and consume the superfluous spongy Flesh of Ulcers only by touching them. And if a Gangrene be not deep this Medicine will reach to the sound parts; after which you need only leave nature to her self, employing ordinary Remedies to produce new flesh, and Cicatrize the diseased part.

The daily use of the said Remedy will discover, will show its excellency in sundry other Diseases. ‘Tis prudence in a Surgeon to use oftentimes the same Medicament for different Maladies, when the Indications concur. This Stone is very commodious and lasts very long. ‘Tis called Infernalis, partly from its black color, and partly from its Caustic burning quality. Observe, that the virtue of this Stone proceeds from the Corrosive Salts of the Aqua fortis which the Silver congeals and retains. You may make the like Stone of Copper or Iron the same way, saving that Iron and Copper reduced into this condition attract the Air more powerfully, and dissolve into Liquor: which happens not to this of Silver, for it preserves itself always in a solid form, and may be carried about in a Box; for which reason Surgeons prefer it before others, and make use of it.

Many Authors fill their Books with several Tinctures and other preparations of Gold and Silver; which we omit as either useless or hurtful, persisting in our first design, to set down nothing superfluous, or that may fruitlessly puzzle the Reader, but to communicate to the publick all that is profitable, and that may be understood and easily performed by Artists, yea even by such as have no skill but what they derive from their Writings.


Of Lead or Saturn.

The Purification of Lead.

Before you can employ Lead, ‘tis necessary first to purify it as much as its imperfection admits, in order to extract out of it what is profitable. Melt it in a great Iron spoon, then put to it by degrees some small pieces of Wax or Soot, which pieces presently flame and leave a little Scum upon the Lead, which must be taken off with an Iron Spatula. Cast new little pieces of Soot or Wax and take away the Scum in this manner, till the Lead remain as bright as Looking Glass; then pour it into a Basin, and let it cool.

The Calcination of Lead.

Put Lead thus purified into a Glass not Varnished, and set the same in a Wind Furnace amidst the burning Coals. Yet the Fire must not be violent; but ‘tis enough that the Pot be red, and the Lead melted. Stir it continually with an Iron rod till it be turned into Powder, or a grayish Calx, inclining to green; which let cool, and then by sifting separate its impurities.

Another Calcination of Lead.

Lay some purified Lead upon a Tile that resists the Fire, and hath edges to keep the melted Lead from running into the Fire. Place the Tile in a Reverberatory Fire, so that the flame may beat continually upon the Lead. But the Fire must not be too violent; for then it will remain always melted, or else Vitrifie, to prevent which, the Fire must be moderate, and the Lead must be stirred continually with an Iron-rod; so the Lead will first turn to a gray powder somewhat greenish, and by continuing the motion it will become yellow, and at last red, at which time ‘tis called Minium. The Calx of a Pound of Lead will be found increased above two ounces, by reason of the Particles of Fire incorporated with it, and by their activity reducing it into very subtle parts. This augmentation is also observed in the Calcination of Tin and other imperfect Metals.

Lead is reduced into Dross, which is a sort of Calcination, in great Cupples, near the Mines, or in Mint-houses, when they purify Gold and Silver by Lead, which destroys the imperfect Metals mixt with the perfect, and reduces them into Dross; which is called Litharge of Gold when it is drawn from the Cuppling of Gold, and Litharge of Silver when it is so drawn from Silver; and imploy’d for the purifying of these Metals.

Another Calcination of Lead

Take a Pound of Lead purified as above; melt it in an Earthen Pot not Varnished [glazed], that resists the Fire. Then cast into it half a pound of Sulphur grossly powdered, and stir it all together with an Iron-rod, till the Sulphur cease to flame and be consumed; and then you shall find the Lead in the bottom of the Pot in a black powder which is called Plumbum Ustum, or Burnt Lead.

Another Calcination of Lead.

Lead is also calcined by acid vapors, and by this means reduced into a white Calx. The process is as follows. Hang Plates of Lead in a covered Vessel, into the bottom of which there is some Vinegar; place the Vessel upon some gentle heat, or in Horse-dung; and the steams of the Vinegar will corrode the Lead-plates, and cause to come out of them a white Powder, like Flower, which gather off with a Hare’s-Foot; and put the Plates again into the Vessel till they be all reduced into Ceruse. You may make use of any of these Calx’s for the preparations which are to be made upon Lead; but the grayish powder mentioned first is the most convenient of all.

Salt or Sugar of Saturn.

Take a pound of grayish powder of Lead, put it into a great Matrass, and pour upon it three pounds of distilled Vinegar. Set the Matrass in digestion in a Sand-Furnace during the space of twenty four hours, in which you must shake the Matrass now and then; otherwise the Calx will harden in the bottom of the Vessel and endanger to break it. Then pour off the distilled Vinegar by inclination into another Vessel; you will find it charged with the substance of the Lead, and its acidity turned to a great sweetness. Put new distilled Vinegar upon the Lead, and proceed as before, mixing and keeping all the Solutions. Continue to put new Vinegar, to digest, and to pour off by inclination, till the distilled Vinegar dissolve no more Lead, nor become sweet, or till all the Lead be dissolved, which it will not fail to be, provided the Calx of Lead be well made. Then filter all the Solutions through gray Paper, and put them into a Gourd with its Alembick, and Recipient in Balneo Maria; and you shall first draw off an insipid Water, the dissolved Lead retaining all the acid Spirits of the Vinegar, which incorporate with it and make a very white Crystalline Salt like Needles, resembling Saltpeter refined. This Liquor must not be distilled to siccity; but you must observe this proportion, that if you have dissolved a pound of Lead there must remain about four pounds of Liquor in the Gourd, to the end the Salt may Crystallize. For when the Liquor is too clear, the Salt is too much diffused   in it, and will not Crystallize; and being too much deprived of moisture, the whole turns to a confused Mass. Wherefore then take the Gourd out of the Bath, and set it in a cool place, during three or four days, at the end of which you shall find a good part of the Liquor turned into Salt. Separate the floating Liquor, and dry the Salt between two Papers . Afterwards put the Liquor which you had poured off by inclination, into a less Gourd, and distill off about a third part; then set the Gourd a day or two in a cool place, and you shall again find Crystallized Salt, which you shall dry as the first. Evaporate and Crystallize again the remaining Liquor, and reiterate the same operation, till you have reduced into Crystals all that is so reducible. And in case your Salt be not white enough the first time, dissolve it with the Phlegm of Vinegar, which filter through a gray Paper, and Crystallize as before; you shall thereby have a very fair Salt of Saturn. This Salt is a very good Medicine in the Asthma, and other diseases of the Breast, being given in some Pectoral Decoction. The Dose is from five to fifteen grains. ‘Tis also used outwardly with good success in Wounds, and Ulcers; for it kills and destroys the corroding Salts of them; it is likewise excellent for Inflammations, being dissolved in Night-shade water, or some other appropriate Water, and then applied. Moreover it serves well in Lotions for Inflammations and Itching of the Eyes. But it is suspected inwardly for those that have weakness in the Kidneys, and parts necessary to Generation. And therefore in this case it must be used discreetly, and with great

The Magistery of Lead.

Dissolve the Calx of Lead in Vinegar, Distilled as is taught in the preceding Chapter. Pour off the Solution by Inclination, and pass it through gray Paper. Then put upon it some Oil of Tartar, per deliquium, and you will instantly see the Liquor as white as curdled Milk, whereon pour a good deal of common Water very clean; and let it settle, and the Lead will precipitate to the bottom in a white powder; and this is by reason of the Oil of Tartar, which being an Alkali Salt dissolved, breaks the force of the distilled Vinegar, which had reduced the Lead into Liquor and constrains it to let go its former hold. Pour off the floating Liquor by inclination, and put some common Water upon the Powder, to Dulcify it, which pour away when it is well settled. Repeat this washing so often till the Powder be wholly freed from the Acrimony of the Salts. Then dry it and keep it for use.

This Magistery is exceeding white, and good for Pomatums. But ‘tis also used in Unguents and Eye-Waters as a good Disicative. If out of curiosity you desire to reduce the Salt, or Magistery of Saturn into Lead as it was before; melt a little Salt of Tartar in a Crucible, then put thereto a little of this Salt or Magistery, and you shall see it presently return to Lead; for the acid Spirit of Vinegar, which kept the Lead in the form of a Salt or white Powder, is destroyed by the Salt of Tartar, by which it is at the same time both melted and reduced back to Metal.

A burning Spirit of Saturn, (as it is called) but rather,
A Spirit of the Volatile Salt of Vinegar.

Take two pounds of Salt of Saturn, well purified by several Solutions and Crystallizations with distilled Vinegar. Put it into a Retort, so as to fill the same but halfway, and place it in a Furnace of Sand, fitting thereunto a large Receiver. Lute the joynings well, and make the Fire gentle at first. There will come forth in the first place a phlegmatic Water and afterwards the Spirit, which will cause the resemblance of Veins in the Receiver, as when you distill Aqua vitae: for this Spirit is almost of the same nature, proceeding from the Volatile Salt of the distilled Vinegar, which the Lead fixed and retained in its dissolution. But when this Spirit is urged by the Fire, it forsakes the body whereunto it adhered. Increase the Fire by little and little and continue it to make the Retort red. There will come forth a red earthy Oil towards the end, but in very little quantity; which Oil some account the true Red Oil of Saturn, but erroneously, it being nothing else but the more heavy and earthy part of the distilled Vinegar. The Distillation being ended leave the Vessel to cool: then unlute the Receiver, wherein are the Phlegm, the Spirit and the Oil confusedly together, and there remains a black earth in the Retort. You must rectify what is in the Receiver, in a little Gourd in Balneo Maria: The Spirit will come forth first, which is inflammable like that of Wine; but it will smell like the Spirit of Lavender or Rosemary: The Phlegm and the thick Oily Liquor will remain in the bottom of the Gourd. This Spirit is an excellent Remedy against the Plague, Putrid Fevers, and Hypochondriacal Melancholy. The Dose from 4 to 12 drops in some convenient Liquor. The Phlegm may serve to wash Wounds and foetid Ulcers. The Earth left in the Retort, is very black whilst inclosed; but as soon as you have broken the Retort, and it takes Air, it grows hot of itself and turns from black to yellow, and at the same time is rarified to the eye. If you put it into a Crucible to melt, it returns easily to Lead.


Of Tin.

The Purification of Tin

Fine Tin is purified after the same manner as Lead, in a great Iron Dish, by being melted on the Fire, and adding to it some little pieces of Soot or Wax, and taking off with a Rod or Spatula of Iron, the black Scum that rises upon it, and pouring the Tin thus depurated into a very clean Basin.

The Calcination of Tin.

Tin is Calcined in a Reverberatory Fire upon an edged Tile, as Lead is in the foregoing Chapter. Continual agitation will reduce it by little and little into a powder of an Isabella colors, provided the Tin be fine and not mixed with Lead; if there be Lead amongst it, the Calx will be white: and ‘tis this last that the makers of fine Earthen Pots make use of for their Varnish [glaze]. It may also be Calcin’d by the addition of Sulphur, as we have said in the foregoing Chapter.

The Salt of Jupiter.

Many Chymists presume to affirm in their writings that the preparation of the Salt of Tin differs nothing from that of Lead, and that they are to be made after the same manner. We easily understand from hence, and from several other things contained in their Books, that they borrow one from another, and choose rather to offer to the publick unwarranted preparations, than to make experience thereof themselves. For ‘tis impossible to dissolve the Calx of Tin, though very well Reverberated, in Distilled Vinegar, which nevertheless easily dissolves Lead. ‘Tis true, the most corrosive Acids as Aqua Fortis, Spirit of Nitre, &c. dissolve it. But in as much as a great quantity of them is necessary for a little Tin, the Remedies drawn from it by help of those corrosives, cannot but be very hurtful. But if you reduce Tin into Flowers by Sublimation, then it is so opened, that Distilled Vinegar can easily dissolve it.

Take a pound of fine Tin, either in Calx or Filings, and two pounds of well refined Saltpeter, and put them into a Gourd in a Reverberatory Furnace, stop well and lute the upper part of the Furnace round about the Gourd, all but the four Registers, by which the fire is to be governed. Fit upon the Gourd one over another three or four good Earthen Pots, pierced in the bottom, all but the uppermost which is to close all; that which is next the Gourd must besides have a little opening on one side for putting the matter in. Lute the joynings of the Vessels exactly, and put fire to the Furnace to heat the Gourd by degrees, till it become all red; then with a little Iron Ladle put in about an ounce of the Powder, and stop the hole immediately with a piece of Earth or Brick fit to it, which may be easily removed. It will make a great rumbling noise, in which the Volatile Spirits of Saltpeter carry away with them part of the Tin, which is sublim’d and sticks to the Pots like white Flower. When the noise is over, put in another ounce of the mixture, stopping the hole speedily, and let the noise pass. Continue this till all the Powder be spent, and then let the Vessel cool. After which, unlute them and you will find the Pots filled with Flowers of Tin, like Meal. Gather off these Flowers with a Feather, and wash them well with warm water, to take away the Acrimony of the Saltpeter; continue these washings till the Flowers be well edulcorated, and then dry them by a gentle fire.

These Flowers thus dry’d put into a Matrass, pouring thereupon distilled Vinegar three fingers higher than the matter. Set this Matrass on hot Sand to digest for three days, then pour off the Solution by inclination into another Vessel, and put new distilled Vinegar upon the remaining matter in the Matrass, and set the same again to digest as before; then pour off the Menstruum by inclination. Repeat these Digestions with new Vinegar till the Flowers be all dissolved; then filter all the Solutions together, and evaporate them with a gentle heat to siccity, and in the bottom of the Vessel you shall find the Salt of Jupiter: which in the next place must be freed from the acidity of the Vinegar it retains, by means of the Spirit of Wine in the manner following.

Put the Salt into a little Glass-Gourd, pouring thereupon good Spirit of Wine two fingers high; fit an Alembick to the Gourd, and a little Receiver to the Alembick, and set it to distill with a slow fire; the Spirit will carry off with it part of the acid Salt of the distilled Vinegar. Repeat this Distillation five or six times, always with new Spirit of Wine; and you shall have a Salt of Jupiter deprived of all Acrimony, and endued with very great virtues in all Hysterical Diseases. The Dose is from 6 to 20 grains in some convenient liquor.

The Magistery of Jupiter.

Dissolve four ounces of very fine Tin with thrice as much good Spirit of Nitre in a Matrass upon a fire of Sand. Pour the Solution into a great Glassed Earthen Pan full of very clean Water, which by its quantity will weaken the Spirit of Nitre, and make it forsake the Tin which it had dissolved, and which will precipitate to the bottom of the Vessel in a very white Powder. Edulcorate this Powder by frequent washings with Water, and dry it in the shade; tis a very fair white, and serves for Pomatums for the Face.


Of Iron.

The Purification of Iron.

Iron is purified and becomes Steel by means of the Horns and Hoofs of Animals, either cut small or grossly Powdered and mixt with Charcoal of some light Wood, as Willow or Tegle powdered and stratified with small Iron Rods, in Pots or Furnaces made on purpose. And being the Hoofs and Horns of Animals contain much Volatile Salt in them, this Salt by the help of the Fire penetrates the substance of Iron by its subtlety and reduces it into Steel.

The Calcination of Mars, and reduction into an Astringent Crocus or Saffron.

Take the filings of polished Steel, or those of fine Needles; put the same upon a large flat Tile, which place in a Glass Furnace, or else in a Reverberatory Furnace, during seven or eight days, so that the Flame may touch it continually; and the filings will be turned into an impalpable Powder, Spongeous and of a brownish red. Wash the same five or six times with warm water, to take away what might remain of its aperitive virtue: then dry it and keep it for use. This Powder, called Crocus Martis astringens, is used for Dysenteries, Lienteries, Spitting of Blood, Gonorrhea’s and other Diseases that need binding. The Dose is from 10 to 30 Grains, in Conserve of Roses, or Syrup of Quinces, or in some proper Water or Decoction. Note that the Chymists give the name of Crocus, or Saffron, to Metals or Minerals, which by Fire either Actual or Potential are reduced into a red or reddish Powder.

Another Astringent Saffron of Mars.

Take three ounces of Filings of Steel, put it into a Glass-Gourd, and pour thereto by little and little twelve ounces of Spirit of Nitre, or of good Aqua fortis. I say by little and little by reason of the great Ebullition which arises and when this is passed, clap an Alembick upon the Gourd, and draw off all the Humidity, which will be as insipid as Water, by reason that the Steel retains all the acid Spirits. There will remain in the bottom of the Gourd a reddish Mass, which you must put into a Crucible upon a moderate fire, so as to make it red for three hours; and you shall have a very red Powder, to be employed outwardly for stoppage of Bleedings, and for drying of Wounds and Ulcers. This Crocus is also used in Astringent Plaisters, Unguents, and Liniments. But if you put but one ounce of Filings of Steel to six ounces of Aqua fortis, and in the Matrass evaporate the same to siccity in a fire of Sand, you shall have a Crocus dissolvable in a Cellar into a red Liquor. ‘Tis a very good Remedy for Mundifying any Ulcer, rendering the same capable of cicatrisation, which it procures by the Astringent faculty derived to it from its Vitriolick Earth.

Another Aperitive Saffron of Mars.

Heat a square piece of Steel in a Smith’s Forge till it become very white and sparkle; have ready a large Earthen Pan full of Water, and take the Steel out of the Fire, holding it firm with the Tongs over the said Water, and apply to it the end of a roll of Brimstone, and they will both melt drop by drop into the Water; but the Steel will cease when it begins to lose its whiteness; and then you must put it again into the Forge and repeat the application of the Sulphur till all the Steel be melted and fallen drop by drop into the Pan of water. Pour the water out of the same by inclination, and put the Steel and Sulphur thus melted into a Crucible, which being made red hot upon the Fire, the Sulphur will exhale and the Steel will remain, which you must beat to a powder and sift through a Hair Sieve. Afterwards reverberate this Powder with a flaming Fire four and twenty hours, and you shall have an Aperitive Saffron of Mars, of a red colors, and a great Remedy in Chronick diseases, the Cachexie, Obstructions of the Liver, Spleen, and Mesentery. The Dose is from 8 to 24 Grains, in the Conserve of Marigold, Tamarisk, &c. Many use with good success the Filings alone finely powdered.

Vitriol of Mars.

Take three pounds of good corrosive Spirit of Vitriol, called improperly Oil, and nine pounds of Rain-water. Mix them together; then put a pound of Filings of Steel in a great Matrass, and pour thereon by little and little the three quarters of the mixture of Water and Spirit. Set the Vessel upon hot Sand for two days, during which most of the Filings will be dissolved, which would not be without the addition of the Water, which hinders the Oil of Vitriol from being sucked up and congeal’d by the Filings of Steel; and the Liquor will become green. Pour it off by inclination into another Vessel; and if any Filings remain undissolved, put thereupon that which you reserved of the Dissolvent, and digest the same as before upon hot Sand. Then pour off what is clear by inclination into the first Solution, and throw away what remains in the bottom of the Matrass, as useless Earth, being but little. Filter all the Solutions, and Evaporate them in an Earthen Pan upon hot Sand to the half. Then place it in a Cellar or other cool place for three days, in which time most of the Liquor will be Crystallized like Vitriol. Pour off the floating Liquor into another Vessel, and having evaporated part of it, Crystallize the rest as before. Repeat this Crystallization till all the humidity be evaporated, and all the solid substance be reduced into Vitriol. Then dry all the Crystals and keep them in a Glass or Earthen Pot well stopt. One pound of Mars affords usually four pounds of Vitriol; which increase proceeds from Recorporation of the Spirit of Vitriol, joyning it self easily with the Mars, which is very apt to congeal and detain acids by its styptick virtue. The Vitriol of Mars is good against the Cachexie, and the obstructions of the Liver, Spleen, Pancreas, and Mesentery. But the use of it must be continued for some time, as of other Remedies extracted from Mars; whereof the Dose likewise must be increased in the continuance, and that by little and little till the Stomach rises against it, and then it must be diminished. The Dose is from 3 to 15 Grains in Broth, or in some Conserve in for of a Bolus. With this Vitriol may be made also Mineral-waters, strong or weak according to the intention. But commonly a Dram of Vitriol serves for two quarts of Water.

Another Aperitive Saffron of Mars.

Reduce a square piece of fine Steel into small Plates, which strew upon an Earthen Dish well Glazed, and expose the same early in the morning to the Dew in the Month of May, taking care to turn it now and then till the Dew be passed that day, and till the Plates in the Basin be dried by the Sun, or otherwise; then with a Hare’s Foot carefully sweep together the little Powder which will be upon the Plates like rust. Continue the same Operation with like care the whole Month of May, or as long as the Dew lasts, daily gathering off the Powder, and keeping it for use. This Operation is sufficiently long and Tedious; but this Saffron yields not to the first in its opening virtue, which is much increased by the subtle and penetrating Spirit of the Dew, which unites it self with the Steel, and insensibly reduces the same into an impalpable Powder. The Dose of this Crocus is from 4 to 15 Grains in Obstructions, as the other Remedies extracted from Mars, to which it is not inferior in virtue.

Another Aperitive Saffron of Mars.

Take a pound (or as much as you please) of Vitriol of Mars made with Spirit of Vitriol, as we have taught before: put the same into a Crucible amongst burning Coals for half an hour or till it be quite red; then let the Vessel cool, and you shall find a reddish brown Powder, weighing about half the Vitriol put to Calcine; for the lighter and better Spirits exhale by the action of the Fire, which ‘tis good to preserve; as you shall do by putting the Vitriol of Mars into a Glass Retort well luted in a Reverberatory Fire, joyning thereto a great receiver, and proceeding in the same manner as we shall in the Chapter of Vitriol teach the Distillation of its Spirit. By this means you shall have a very excellent Spirit of Vitriol of Mars, which may be used with very good success where there is occasion for acids. In the bottom of the Retort there will remain a Saffron of Mars very fair and excellent, having all the virtues attributed above to the preparations of Aperitive Saffrons of Mars.

An Aperitive Tincture of Mars by means of Tartar.

The preparation of this Remedy is simple and easy. ‘Tis improperly called a Tincture, being nothing but a Solution of the entire substance of Iron made with Tartar, which is a matter much abounding in Acid Salt. Take half a pound of Filings of Steel, well washed, and two pounds of good Tartar of Montpellier, or Germany, (which is the best for this Operation) though either may serve, provided it be clean and Crystalline. Powder the Tartar, and mix it with the Filings, and put all together into a great Iron-Pot. Pour thereon ten or twelve quarts of Rain-water or River-water. The Pot must be so great that a third part may be empty. Set it to boil on a good Fire, till it dissolve the Tartar, and make the Acid part thereof act upon the Steel, which you may observe by the swelling of the matter; for which reason the Pot must be very large and only half full; for otherwise it would run over. Continue the Fire a whole day together, and keep a Vessel full of boiling Water near the Pot to recruit the consuming Water. In the mean time stir the Water continually, which will appear as white as Broth; and after ten or twelve hours boiling, leave it to settle; that which is thick will go to the bottom, and the thinner part will float above, being blackish and of a sweetish taste. Pour the clear off by inclination, and filter it through a gray Paper. Then evaporate it in a Phial for use, as a very good and sure Remedy against all obstructions of the Liver, Spleen, Pancreas, and Mesentery, and against Cachexies, Dropsies, Stopping of the Courses, and generally against all Diseases which require opening and strengthening; ‘tis also very good against the Worms and putrefaction of the Stomach and Bowels. The Dose is from fifteen drops to half a Spoonful in Broth, or in some proper Water or Decoction.

An Aperitive Extract of Mars.

Take one pound of very fine Filings of Steel, put it into a great Bottle, and pour to it eight quarts of Must or Juice of Grapes newly pressed out; stop the Bottle and expose it to the Sun, and in fair weather forty days and nights, shaking the matter in it sometimes, the better to draw out the Aperitive substance of the Steel. At the end of which time filter the Liquor through gray Paper, which you will find to have the colors and taste of Iron. Evaporate to the Consistence of a Rob, if you will have it in a liquid form, or to the consistence of an Extract, if you will mix it with Electuaries, Lozenges, or Pills. Let this be done with a gentle Fire in a Glass Vessel in Balneo Maria, or warm Ashes, to the end the Extract may not savor of burning, and you shall have a Medicine of great virtue, and not at all unpleasant. If you keep it in the consistence of a Rob, the Dose may be the same with the Tincture of Mars newly described. If you reduce it into an Extract, the Dose may be from six Grains to a Scruple, in some proper Syrup, Trosk, a roasted Apple, or the like. You may also incorporate it with an equal quantity of Aloes Succarine, dissolved, depurated and boiled with Syrup of Damask-Roses, and according to art make a mass of it, whereof you may form Pills, each weighing eight Grains, of good use for all sorts of Obstructions both of Men and Women. ‘Tis enough to take one Pill before Supper for fifteen days, or three weeks. Some reinforce this Mass with Gum Armoniac or [...], and even with Scammony and other Laxatives; which I will not disapprove, being glad that every day something were invented to improve the excellent Medicines which Chymistry affords us.

An Astringent Extract of Mars.

Though this Preparation be very simple and the easiest in all the Book, yet it deserves to be mentioned for the good effects which it produces, and for the sake of those that are ignorant of both sort of Pharmacy. Take four ounces of Filings of Steel, put it into a Glazed Earthen Pot, pouring thereto a quart of good deep red Wine, that which Wine Merchants use to give a colors to their White wine, set it to boil, and stir it about with an Iron Spatula till above three parts of the Wine be consumed; Filter the remainder whilst it is hot and swims above the Steel; and then evaporate it to the Consistence of an Extract; Or if you will not be at the trouble, you may use this filtered Liquor, giving an ounce of it in Broth, fasting, for some mornings together, as a great Remedy for Diarrheas, Dysenteries, old Hepatical Fluxes, and other such Diseases. Being reduced into the form of an Extract; the Dose is from twelve Grains to half a Dram, in some Broth or other Astringent Liquor.

Salt of Mars

Take half a pound of Filings of Steel, put it into a Glazed Earthen Pan and sprinkle it with good Distilled Vinegar till it be like Paste. Then set the Vessel in a Bath of Ashes till the Paste be dried; then powder it, and moisten it again with Distilled Vinegar and dry it as before. Repeat this Operation a Dozen times, to open the Steel well; Lastly, powder the Steel, and put it in a Gourd, in Balneo Maria, pouring thereto twelve pound of Distilled Vinegar, and continue it in the Bath boiling till a third part of the Menstruum be consumed; then decrease the Fire, and having put new Menstruum to the Steel set the same in Balneo as before; pour off the remainder by inclination. Repeat this Operation thrice; and the Vessel being cooled mix all the Solutions together, and filter them exactly. Evaporate in Balneo Maria till there remain in the bottom but about an eighth part; then set the Vessel in a cool place for a day or two, in which time the Salt will partly be Crystallized. Pour off by inclination the Liquor floating above the Crystals into another glassed Vessel, and Evaporate again. Repeat this Operation till you have drawn out all the Salt, which you must dry gently and keep for use. This Salt is improperly called so, as well as that of Saturn, being nothing but Solutions made with the Acid Spirit of Vinegar which coagulates with matter dissolved into the form of Salt; but this union may be easily dissolved by Fire, which drives the light Spirits of the Vinegar into the Air, the Metallick bodies remaining in form of an Earthy Calx, till by the extreme violence of a melting Fire the same be reduced into Metal.

Yet this hinders not but that whilst in form of Salt they have their use in Physick; since the Acids wherewith they are prepared carry them into the most remote and difficult places, and these very Acids being corrected in some sort by the bodies which they retain, cannot act with so much violence as they would do being alone. This Salt may be used where ever there is occasion for the other Aperitive Remedies of Mars. The Dose is from 3 to 15 Grains in some Vehicle.


Of Copper.

The Purification of Copper

Take thin Copper Plates, and cut them into pieces proportional to the Crucible, then make a course Powder of three parts of Pumice-stone, and one part of River Sand, or Salt of Glass: Stratify your Plates in a very strong Crucible, beginning and ending with the Powder, and set the Crucible in a very hot melting Fire. The Copper will be found melted in the bottom of the Crucible, and the Pumice Stone will be above it, having sucked up a good part of its earthy and impure Sulphur. This operation may be repeated twice or thrice, to purify the Copper the more and render it fitter for Chymical Operation.

The Calcination of Copper.

Copper may be Calcined into a Crocus in the same manner as Mars, by reducing it into Filings, and placing the same upon an edged Tile in a Reverberatory Fire during seven or eight days. It may also be Calcin’d by Stratifying the Plates with powder of Brimstone in a Pot that can endure the fire, covered with its covering, in the middle of which there is a hole to let the Sulphur exhale. Copper thus burnt is called Aes ustum. It may also be Calcin’d and reduced into Verdigris by Stratifying the Plates in a covered Pot with the Husks, or Mother of the pressing of Grapes which have fermented with the Wine in the Fat; in the bottom of which Pot there must be a little Wine, over which little sticks are to be placed crosswise to keep the Plates from touching the Wine. The said Mother is also to be moistened a little before you Stratify the Plates with it; which render their Verdigris after that the Mother being Fermented and heated, the Vinous Tartar remaining in the Mother being excited by the vapors of the Wine, become volatilized into Spirit, and as it ascends penetrates and corrodes the Plates, and reduces them into Verdigris. This preparation cannot be made in all places where Wine grows; because all Wines have not Tartar enough for this purpose. But Montpellier and other adjacent places afford much of it, because the Wines thereof abound with very pure penetrating Tartar proper for this effect.

Vitriol of Venus.

Take a pound of the Filings of Copper, put the same into a Matrass, and pour thereon three pounds of good Distilled Vinegar. Place it in digestion upon hot Sand for three or four days; then pour off the distilled Vinegar by inclination, and put some fresh upon the Copper, which digest as before. Repeat this by pouring off the Solutions by inclination till all the Filings be reduced into a green Liquor. Filter it, and Evaporate the Humidity till there remain but about four pounds of Liquor. Then take the Vessel from the Fire, and let it stand two or three days in a cool place, and part of the Liquor will be Crystallized. Pour off as much as is not Crystallized, and having Evaporated the half, set it again to Crystallize as before. Continue this till all the dissolved substance be reduced into green Crystals, which you must dry and keep carefully. This Operation is made more easily with Verdigris, because the distilled Vinegar finds the same more open and fit for Dissolution than crude Copper.

Another Vitriol of Venus.

A Vitriol of Venus of a sky color may be prepared by means of the Acid Spirit of Vitriol, in the same manner as the Vitriol of Mars is made.

Spirit of Venus.

Take a pound of the green Crystals of Copper or Verdigris made with distilled Vinegar,
put the same in a Glass Retort, which place in a Furnace of Sand, fitting a great Receiver thereto. Lute the joints well, and make a moderate fire in the beginning. There will come forth first a Phlegmatic Water, next a Spirit, appearing in the Receiver in the form of Veins, as Aqua vitae also doth; then you must increase the fire, to drive out the white Spirits which will ascend in Clouds: at last a yellowish Liquor will come forth. The Distillation being ended, leave the Vessels to cool; and when they are unluted you will find in the Retort a black Earth like Coal-dust, which you may keep in Powder, being very Styptick, and good to dry Wounds and Ulcers; it may also be reduced into Copper by a Fire of Fusion, only adding some Salt-peter and Tartar to it. What is in the Receiver must be put in a little Gourd, and set in hot Sand with its Head and Receiver; and all the Liquor distilled to dryness with a gentle heat. You will have a very clear Spirit, excellent against all obstructions of the Liver and Spleen; as also against the Epilepsy, Apoplexie, and old pains of the Head; ‘tis put into Julips to give them a pleasing Sharpness. It may also serve for dissolving of Corals, Pearls, &c. but being distilled Vinegar doth the same, I would not advise anybody to make use of a Spirit so laboriously made. And though some pretend that this Spirit acts upon Bodies without re-action, and may be drawn off by Distillation with the same strength it had before; yet I know the contrary by experience, having found that this Spirit as well as distilled Vinegar leaves the impression of its Acrimony in Bodies dissolved by it, whether Pearls or Corals; for which reason I cannot subscribe to all the commendations which they give to it.

A Volatile Vitriol and Magistery of Venus.

Take four ounces of Filings of Copper, put them into a Matrass, and pour thereon some Acid Spirit of Salt Armoniack prepared as taught hereafter, to the height of three Inches above the Copper; stop the Matrass and set it in digestion upon hot Sand for some days. The Spirit will dissolve part of the Copper, but not with that violence as Aqua-fortis doth, but by little and little; (for Aqua-fortis will do as much in one hour as this Spirit can do in four days.) Pour off the Solution by inclination into another Vessel; and if any Copper remain undissolved, put new Spirit to it till it be all dissolved. Filter all these Solutions, and evaporate the half in a covered Gourd upon hot Sand; set the remainder in a cool place to Crystallize for two days. Pour off the Liquor that swims above the Crystals into another Gourd, and Evaporate the half again, and set the rest in a cool place to Crystallize. Continue this till all be crystallized. Dry the Crystals gently and keep them carefully. This Vitriol hath something mysterious in it, and the preparation of it is the first step to come to the knowledge of the sweet Sulphur of Venus which Van Helmont recommends above all other things. If you set this Vitriol in a Crucible upon burning Coals, it all flies away. You may make an excellent Medicine of it by subliming it with Salt Armoniac, as follows.

Reduce four ounces of Vitriol and as much of Salt Armoniac into a fine Powder, which put into a Gourd with its Alembick well Luted, and fit to it a Receiver well luted also; and by a fire of Sand sublime by degrees all that will ascend; after which let the Vessel cool, and having dissolved that which is sublimated in warm Water; Filter it, then pour upon it some Oil of Tartar per deliquium, which will precipitate a greenish Powder, which is the Magistery of Venus, and must be edulcorated by frequent Ablutions, and then dried. ‘Tis a Sovereign Remedy for an old Gonorrhea, being taken for some days from 6 to 12 Grains in some Conserve in form of a Bolus. You may keep apart a little Urinous Spirit found in the Receiver, which may be employed outwardly for Aches proceeding from cold humours.

A Liquor of Venus.

Dissolve an ounce of Filings of Copper in eight ounces of good Aqua-fortis, and evaporate the Humidity by little and little in a fire of Sand, till there remain in the bottom of the Vessel a green Mass, which being kept in a Cellar for some days will melt into a Liquor, and is useful to cleanse Ulcers and eat off dead flesh, and all Superfluities.


Of Quicksilver.

The Purification of Mercury.

There are several Purifications of Mercury. Some are contented only to wash it with good Vinegar and Salt and when it is dry to pass it through Leather. But being it may carry with it Lead or Bismuth, or some other Mineral; wherewith possibly ‘tis mixt, this way of purifying is not sufficient. Others put the Mercury into a Retort and distill it into a Receiver half Full of Water; and if it has been increased by Lead or Bismuth, these Metals will remain in the bottom of the Retort whilst the Mercury goes pure into the Receiver. But the best way of purifying Mercury, and the fittest for all Chymical Operations, is to revive Cinnabar into fluid Mercury; by which means you are sure to have pure Mercury as it comes from the first hand; because all Cinnabar is made near the Mines of Mercury, and is put into that form for more easy transportation. Moreover the mixture of the Mercury with Sulphur, by means of which Cinnabar is made, and its sublimation doth in some sort graduate and perfect it. Lastly, the Reviving of Cinnabar into fluid Mercury by Filings of Iron delivers it from all impurity. But since we resolve to use the fluid Mercury revived from Cinnabar, ‘tis requisite first to show the preparation of Artificial Cinnabar.

The Sublimation of Mercury into Cinnabar, and the reviving of Cinnabar into fluid Mercury.

Melt a pound of common Sulphur in a wide Earthen Pan; then put three pounds of Mercury into a Shamoy [Chamois] skin, and gently squeeze the same through it, so that it come out little and little like small Rain, and fall immediately into the Pan which contains the melted Sulphur. In the mean time continue stirring the Sulphur and keep it in Fusion till the Mercury be insensibly incorporated with it, then let the matter cool, which will be black; powder it grossly and sublime in an Aludel, or Earthen Subliming Pot with a close Fire; and you shall have a very fair Cinnabar. If the Mercury were sophisticated with Lead, Bismuth, or any thing else, you will find the same in the bottom of the Subliming Vessel; so that you may be assured of the goodness and pureness of this Mercury converted into Cinnabar. The ordinary use of Cinnabar is for Painting; as also in Fumigations to provoke Salivation in the POX; ‘tis likewise used in Ointments for the Itch, and other faults of the Skin.

Now to revive Cinnabar into fluid Mercury; Take a pound of this Cinnabar, or of that which is sold in the Shops, and as much of Filings of Iron, beat them together, and put the mixture into a Retort of Glass or Earth well Luted; place this Retort in a Furnace, and put Coals round about it till it be quite covered; then put lighted Coals above, so that the Fire may kindle by degrees; fit a Receiver to the Retort half full of Water. And when the Retort begins to be red, the Mercury will come into the Receiver drop by drop. Increase the Fire, and continue it till there come no more forth. Having poured away the Water, dry the Mercury and keep it for use. The Filings of Iron remaining in the Retort will be much Rarefied, and black and increased in weight, because it retains all the Sulphur which was in composition of the Cinnabar; which Sulphur leaves the Mercury to adhere to the Iron, by reason of the Acid Spirits contained in the Sulphur which are united to the Iron.

Red Precipitate.

Put four ounces of this Mercury revived from Cinnabar into a Matrass, and pour thereunto six ounces of good Aqua fortis. Place the Matrass in warm Sand till all the Mercury be dissolved; which is usually done in a quarter of an hour; then pour off the Solution into a Retort, and distill in a fire of Sand all that will come forth. Cohobate the Distillation twice, and at the end of the second Cohobation increase the fire till the Retort be red hot; then leave the Vessel to cool, and breaking it you shall find in it a red shining Mass, which you must powder in a Marble Mortar. This Precipitate is of use for Venereal Diseases; some take it at the Mouth from 4 to 8 Grains in Pills, or in some Conserve in form of a Bolus. ‘Tis also used with success in Pomatums for the Itch, Tetters, and other faults of the Skin; in which case you must take notice that the Aqua fortis be not made but of Salt peter and Alum, because that with Vitriol is too violent and corrosive. It also serves for Ulcers and Cancers as well to mundify as to consume their proud flesh and other superfluities. But as for its internal use, you must lessen its corrosiveness, by putting it in an Earthen Dish, and pouring on it good Spirit of Wine, and burning the same; which must be repeated thrice; and then you may use it inwardly with more safety. Here I must admonish the Surgeons and others who buy Precipitate of certain vagrant persons, that they try it by putting a little upon burning Coals; for if any of it revive into fluid Mercury as soon as it feels the Fire, ‘tis a sign it is mixt and sophisticated with Minium, which is nothing else but calcin’d Lead, which retains the Spirit of Aqua fortis which before kept the Mercury in form of a red Powder; so that the Mercury re-assumes its first form; which, true red Precipitate doth not; for being put upon a burning Coal, it all exhales presently; the corrosive Spirits and the Mercury being strictly united and having no such body as Lead to divide them, they exhale together in the Fire.

Turbith Mineral.

Take four ounces of Mercury revived from Cinnabar, and sixteen ounces of Oil of Sulphur or Vitriol; put them together into a Glass Retort, which set in hot Sand for twenty four hours; after which, fit a Receiver to it and increase the Fire by degrees; much Phlegm will come forth first, because the body of the Mercury retains back the acid Spirits of the Vitriol or Sulphur; continue the Fire till there come forth at last a little of Acid Spirit which the Mercury could not withhold. Then let the Vessel cool, and you will find in the bottom of the Retort a white Mass, which beat in a Glass Mortar, and pour on it a good deal of hot Water, upon which it will instantly turn yellow. Edulcorate it well with warm Water, and then dry it and keep it. This Powder purges powerfully upwards or downwards, being mixt with purgative Pills or Electuaries. ‘Tis employed for the cure of Venereal Diseases. The Dose is from 3 to 6 Grains. The violence of this Powder may be moderated by burning Spirit of Wine upon it and stirring it in the mean time; and this for six times together. Which done, you may use it with more safety, and augment the Dose to 8 or 9 Grains.

White Precipitate.

Dissolve eight ounces of the same Mercury in a great Matrass with ten or twelve ounces of good Aqua fortis, upon hot Sand: and being dissolved pour upon it four or five times as much warm Water to break the strength of the corrosive Spirits; add to it afterwards about eight ounces of Sea Salt well purified, and you shall see the Mercury fall to the bottom in a white Powder. Let it settle well, and pour the Liquor into another Vessel. Then wash and Edulcorate the Precipitate with warm water till all the Acrimony of the Salts and the Spirits be taken from it; then dry it in the Shadow. Drop gently some Oil of Tartar per deliquium upon the first Lotion kept apart, and it will Precipitate part of the Mercury which the common Salt could not, and you will find in the bottom of the Vessel a red Powder which also wash and Edulcorate, as the white. You may also reserve the first Lotion, and drop into it gently Spirit of Urine, which will Precipitate some of the Mercury in a grayish Powder. Thus you may have from one sort of Solution three sorts of Precipitate, which may be indifferently used in Pomatums for the Itch, Morphew, Tetters, &c. Where ‘tis to be noted that you must never use it for the Face, at least not long, because it will spoil the Teeth and weaken the Brain, the Nerves, and Membranes in their source and Original, and it has been observed to cause Deafness in some persons, of which no other cause could be conjectured but the applying such Remedies to the Face, but the first Precipitate made with common Salt may be taken at the Mouth for Venereal Diseases, it purges both upward and downwards. The Dose is from 4 to 8 Grains. If you put this white Precipitate into a Matrass and sublime it without any addition in Sand, you shall have an excellent sweet Sublimate, of which you may give from 20 to 30 Grains in some Mass of Pills, without fear of Vomiting; for the Sublimation alone corrects its violent quality.

Corrosive Sublimate.

Dissolve in a Matrass a pound of Mercury with a pound of good Aqua fortis upon a moderate Fire of Sand. Pour off the Solution into an Alembick, and Distill off about half the Humidity, which you may throw away. Let the rest cool, and it will coagulate into a Salt or Vitriol. Mix this Vitriol of Mercury with one pound of decrepitated Salt, and as much of dephlegmed Vitriol, both powdered; put this mixture into a Glass Gourd with its Head, and place it in a Furnace of Sand, adapting to it a Receiver. Distill with a very gentle Fire all the Phlegm that will come out; then increase the Fire one degree, to make the Mercury ascend by little and little; it will unite with so much of the Spirit of Salt or Vitriol as is necessary for Crystallization and Coagulation; and you will see it stick to the sides of the Gourd. Continue the Fire twelve or fifteen hours, always in a moderate Degree. For if the heat be not sufficient, there will be no Sublimation; but if it be too great, either the Vessel will fly, or the Sublimate will melt and fall back upon the Faeces. Let the Vessel cool afterwards, and you will find the Mercury Sublimed to the top of the Gourd which must be broken, to separate that which is fair and Crystalline from that which is in the Head.

You may Sublime Mercury without dissolving it first in Aqua fortis, by beating it with double its weight of dry’d Vitriol and as much Decrepitated Salt. But being there needs much time to beat the Mercury before it be incorporated with the Powders, and the Atoms or Steams issuing from it are hurtful to the Brain, we prefer the manner already described. The Sublimation of Mercurius dulcis.

Beat a pound of Corrosive Sublimate prepared as above in a Mortar of Marble or Glass, with a Wooden Pestle, and mix it with eight or ten ounces of Mercury revived from Cinnabar, stirring it so long till the Mercury appear not at all, and the mixture become gray; put this Powder into a Vial in a Sand Furnace, and give Fire by degrees for seven or eight hours. Afterwards let the Sand cool, take out the Vial and break it, and you shall find in the bottom a little quantity of light Earth, but above and in the middle the sweet Sublimed Mercury, and towards the neck of the Vial some little of Corrosive Mercury, which you must separate. The Sublimate of the middle will be compact and sweet enough, but it must be beaten again in a Marble Mortar, and resublimed alone twice more, separating the Earth from it each time, and that which is Sublimed in the top of the Vial. Keep the Sublimate which you find in the middle, which will be well dulcified and fit for all uses. The Dose of this Mercurius dulcis is from 6 Grains to 30. ‘Tis to be mixed with some Purgatives in a Bolus or Pills; but is never given alone, to avoid Salivation. Its use is chiefly against Venereal Diseases and Worms.

Observe that all the preparations of Mercury may be revived in like manner as Cinnabar with Filings of Iron or Quick Lime, which attract to themselves and retain all the Spirits which fixed the Mercury and gave it several shapes. Also that in the preparations of Mercury as well Corrosive as sweet, you must beware of touching any Metal, lest the Corrosive Salts attract the colors, and take away its whiteness.


Of Antimony.

The Ordinary Regulus of Antimony.

Take a pound of good Antimony, twelve ounces of Tartar of Montpellier, and five ounces of Nitre; put them together in powder; then set a great Crucible in a Wind Furnace upon a little Tile, that it touch not the Grate, and that it may receive more heat; make it red hot amongst the burning Coals, and get a Cover fit to the Crucible. Take about an ounce of the said mixture with an Iron Spoon, and put the same into the Crucible; and cover it at the same time with its Cover. The Antimony will be presently Calcined with a great noise, which they call detonation; which being passed, put more matter into the Crucible, covering it as before. Continue this till all the Matter be in the Crucible. Then give a good Fire of Fusion; and the Matter being melted put it into an Iron Cornet or Cone greased within, and at the same time strike the Cone with the Tongs to make the Regulus fall to the bottom. When ‘tis thoroughly cold turn up the Cone, and you shall find a lump of Regulus in the bottom and the Faeces on the top of it. Separate the Regulus with the stroke of a Hammer, and keep it by it self; as also the Faeces, of which you may make the Golden Sulphur of Antimony, by boiling the same in common Water, and filtering the Decoction, upon which pouring a little distilled Vinegar by degrees, you shall see a red Sulphur of Antimony Precipitate, which you must edulcorate by several Lotions, and then dry it. Many call this Powder Sulphur Aureum Diaphoreticum; but improperly; for ‘tis a strong Vomitive. The Dose is in substance from 2 to 6 Grains. It may be also infused in Wine, as Crocus Metallorum is, to make an Emetic Wine.

Regulus of Antimony with Mars.

Take half a pound of the points of Horse [shoe] nails, put them into a good Crucible; in a Wind Furnace, and cover the Crucible; give a Fire of Fusion, as soon as the Nails are very red, put to them a pound of good Antimony grossly powdered, and clap on the Cover, laying Coals above it, that the Fire may be very violent, and the Antimony presently melted so as to act upon the Iron and reduce it into Dross, with which the impure Sulphurous part of the Antimony unites at the same time that the Mercurial and pure part separates from it. You must have an Iron Cornet, or Cone upon the Fire, and rub it with Wax and Oil; and when you see the matter well melted, throw into it by little and little three or four ounces of Saltpeter: I say by little and little, lest the Nitre make the Matter boil out of the Crucible. When the Matter has done sparkling, put it into the heated Cone, which strike with the Tongs to make the Regulus fall to the bottom. When it is cold, take it out and separate it from the Faeces with the blow of an Hammer. These Faeces are nothing but the Sulphurous and Earthy part of the Antimony mixed with the Nitre and some part of Mars, making a Mass together; which at first is very compact; but in a few days it rarifies itself into a very light Powder resembling the Dross of Iron. The Regulus will not be pure enough at the first Fusion, and therefore it must be melted in a new Crucible, and being melted put to it three ounces of crude Antimony in Powder, and make them flow together with a quick Fire. This addition of Antimony consumes the remaining impressions of Mars by its Sulphur. The matter being well in Fusion, cast in little and little two or three ounces of Nitre; and the Ebullition being ceased, pour it all into a hot and Oiled Cone or Cornet, and proceed as before, and you shall find the Regulus much purer than at the first melting. Melt it once more, and add to it a little Saltpeter; and when the Ebullition is over, put it into a Retort, proceeding as before; and the Faeces will be grayish. Reiterate the Fusion the fourth time; adding to it some more Saltpeter; and you will see that the said Saltpeter finding no more impurity in the Regulus, the Faeces lying at the top will be white or yellowish; and besides the Regulus will have upon its Surface the figure of a Star, which is the sign of its perfection.

You may use either Regulus to make Cups and Bullets, or Pills which they call Perpetual Pills, because their virtue is never exhausted. For Wine put into a Cup made of Regulus, and changed every day, will always Purge and Vomit; and a little Bullet of Regulus may be swallowed against the Colick and the Illiack Passion; and when ‘tis passed with the excrements, it may be washed and serve again a thousand times, never losing its quality, substance, or weight, but always working by the same irradiative quality.

The Flowers of Antimony.

Place an Aludel or other Earthen Pot resisting the Fire in a Wind Furnace, and sit above it four or five of the same Earthen Pots proportionate to the said Aludel, and open both at the top and bottom, except the uppermost which must serve for a Head. Lute the joynings well, and let the Pot placed upon the Aludel have a hole on the side with a stopper of the same Earth, to be put to and removed easily. Give Fire by little and little, and increase it till the Aludel be all red. Then throw into the hole about two or three Drams of good Antimony in Powder, stopping the hole immediately; open the same again about half a quarter of an hour after to put in the like quantity of powder of Antimony. Continue this Operation till you have put enough in. In the mean time maintain the Fire so that the Aludel may remain always red hot; and when you have employed Antimony enough, let the Vessels cool and unlute them: gather off the Flowers sticking to the sides of the upper Vessels, which will be of several colors, according as your Fire has been more or less violent. In the Aludel you will find some part of the Antimony; though some affirm that all the Antimony ascends up in Flowers; but experience shows the contrary; and the total Sublimation thereof can only be made in open, not in close, Vessels.

Another preparation of Flowers of Antimony with Saltpeter.

Reduce into fine powder one pound of Antimony and three pounds of refined Saltpeter; mix them together: then take an Aludel, or an Earthen Subliming pot, having an hole in the middle of the side, and a stopper of good Earth; place it in a little Furnace in a naked Fire, fit a Glass head upon it, and a Receiver to the Head. Lute well all the joynings, and give Fire by little and little till the Aludel begin to be red at the bottom. Then open the hole, and throw in about half an ounce of the mixture of Antimony and Saltpeter; stop the hole immediately, and the Spirits of the Saltpeter will ascend with great impetuosity, and carry up with them some part of the Antimony, which will stick to the Alembick like Flowers. The noise being ceased, continue to throw into the Aludel new powder, stopping the hole and letting the Detonation pass. Continue this till all be spent. Then cease the Fire, and the Vessel being cold unlute them. In the Receiver you will find a Spirit of Nitre impregnated with the Sulphur of Antimony; and in the Head or Alembick the white Flowers of Antimony: but in the Pot you will have a white fixed Mass consisting of the heavier parts of the Antimony and the Salt Alkali which is in the Nitre; Edulcorate the same by several Lotions, and free it from all impression of the Saltpeter. Afterwards dry the powder and you shall have a Diaphoretick Antimony, or Ceruse of Antimony well prepared. It may be made also of the Regulus of Antimony, as we shall show hereafter. The Flowers in the Alembick must be Edulcorated with Water, to take away the acidity of the Spirits of the Saltpeter, then dry’d and kept. They vomit strongly, and are used in inveterate Diseases, and especially against Melancholy, Agues, and all sorts of Obstructions. The Dose is from 3 to 6 Grains in some Conserve. These Flowers thus prepared may be used more safely than those made without Nitre, which in some sort digests and corrects them. The acid Spirit is excellent against the Cholick and obstructions; it also provokes Urine. The Dose is from 10 to to 30 Drops in some convenient Liquor.

The Ceruse of Antimony drives out by insensible transpiration all putrefaction and superfluity in the Body. ‘Tis used with happy success to consume Serosities, and against Scabs, Pox, &c. The Dose is from 10 to 30 Grains in Broth, or some convenient Liquor.

Another Preparation of Flowers of Antimony.

Put a pound of Regulus of Antimony into an Aludel, and fit some Pots over it, as is before taught; place the Vessels in a Furnace and give fire by degrees at first; but as soon as the Aludel is very hot, give a violent Fire and consume it for the space of twenty four hours, or till all the Regulus be ascended in very white and light Flowers, which gather off with a Hare’s Foot for use. The virtue of these Flowers differs not from the others, and they may serve in all Diseases requiring a powerful evacuation.

Diaphoretick Antimony.

In the making of the Flowers of Antimony with Saltpeter we have already showed the way to make Diaphoretick Antimony, or the Ceruse of Antimony: but the operation being a little troublesome, we shall show one more easy.

Take a pound of good Antimony, and three pounds of refined Saltpeter being powdered apart; mix them together: then take an Earthen Pot not glassed proportionate to the quantity of the Powder, make it red hot in the Fire in a Wind Furnace, and put into it about an ounce of the said mixture which will be Calcined immediately with a great noise. The Detonation being ceased put another ounce of the matter in; and do so till all be spent. There will remain in the bottom of the Pot a Mass as white as Snow, containing in it the Salt Alkali of the Saltpeter, and the more fixed parts of the Antimony; for the Volatile Nitrous Spirit unites with the Volatile Sulphurous parts of the Antimony, and they exhale together. The Pot being cooled, break it, and pour a good quantity of warm fair Water upon the white Mass to take away the Saline parts; stir the Liquid often, then let it settle, and pour it off by inclination. Put new warm Water upon the Matter, stir it and leave it to settle; and repeat this Lotion so often till the white Powder remaining in the bottom be wholly freed from the Acrimony given it by the Saltpeter. Dry this Powder by rolling it to and fro in Cap-paper, and then expose it to the Air or Sun, and you shall have a Ceruse of Antimony well prepared.

This preparation may be made with the Regulus well purified, adding thrice the weight of good Saltpeter, and Calcining and Edulcorating as above; it will be whiter and purer than that made with crude Antimony. But observe also that the Regulus makes no Detonation, because its superficial Sulphur is separated from it, this being partly the cause of the noise, when it is agitated by the Nitrous Spirits. The virtues of these two preparations of Diaphoretic Antimony are like those attributed to it in the preparation of the Flowers of Antimony with Saltpeter. Observe also that when it hath been kept many years, it returns to its first nature, and loses the qualities acquired by its preparation. Whence it comes to pass, that the Patient is frustrated of the benefit of the Medicine and the Physician of the credit he expected from it.

Crocus Metallorum, or the Saffron of Metals.

Take a pound of good Antimony, and as much purified Saltpeter, each powdered grossly apart and mix them together; then make an earthen Pot red hot amongst burning Coals, and put into it two or three ounces of the mixture, covering the Pot immediately with a Cover or Tile. It will make a great Smoke, which you must avoid. Continue to put the mixture in, till all be spent. Then increase the Fire till the matter melt; which done take the Pot from the Fire, leave it to cool, and break it. You shall find in the bottom a Mass of the colors of Liver of Antimony, and white Faeces upon it, which take away, and keep if you please to reduce any Calx of Metals into a Body. You may powder the Liver of Antimony, and you shall have a Saffron of Metals well prepared, from which you may by several Lotions separate some Nitrous Particles remaining in it: but many use it without washing or Edulcorating.

If you wash it with warm Water, the first Lotion will carry off the greatest part of the Nitrous Salt with some portion of the lighter parts of the Antimony; so that if the same be filtered through gray Paper, it will be a very clear Liquor; but by putting some Acid to it, it will precipitate a very subtle reddish Powder, which you must let settle, Edulcorate and dry: It hath near the same virtues as are attributed to the Flowers of Antimony.

An Extract of Antimony.

Take four ounces of Crocus Metallorum prepared as above, and eight pounds of Must, put them together into a Glass bottle, and proceed as is taught in the preparation of Extract of Mars [pg. 46] made with Must or juice of Grapes; and you shall have a vomiting Extract, of which the Dose is to be increased or diminished according as it has been more or less Evaporated. The Dose is usually from 6 to 24 Grains.

Butter or Oil of Antimony, and its Cinnabar.

Pulverize and mix a pound of Sublimate Corrosive, and as much Antimony: put them together in a Retort which place in a Fire of Sand, fitting a Glass Receiver to the said Retort; give Fire gently, and when you see a Gummy Liquor come forth, continue a moderate Fire till no more issue out. Towards the latter end increase the Fire, and when no more drops will out, take away the Receiver, and increase the Fire till the Retort be red hot, to make Cinnabar of Antimony ascend, as it will do to the neck of the Retort, which break when it is cold, and gather off the Cinnabar.

Note that in this preparation the Acid Spirits of the Salt and Vitriol, which kept the Mercury in Crystalline form, or Corrosive Sublimate, leave the Mercury to fasten to the Reguline part of the Antimony, which they carry with them through the Retort in form of a thick Liquor; but the Mercury joyns with the Sulphur of Antimony, and is sublimed with it in form of Cinnabar. The Butter of Antimony is a good Caustic being applied with a Feather; it eats and consumes proud Flesh and cleanses Ulcers. It must be rectified once more in another Retort to separate the impurities adhering to it. ....

The Cinnabar of Antimony is a Specific against the Epilepsy, and is mixt with the Magistery of Coral and Pearl. The Dose is from 8 to 15 Grains. If you put this Cinnabar with an equal quantity of Salt of Tartar into a Retort, you may draw off the Mercury alive in a graduated Fire; and the Antimony will remain with the Salt of Tartar; which may afterwards be dissolved with Water, which filter and Precipitate the Sulphur of Antimony with distilled Vinegar or some other Acid; then Edulcorate it by washing, and you shall have the true Sulphur of Antimony; from which you may draw the Balsam of Sulphur which is distilled Oil of Anise Seed, as we shall show in the Chapter of Sulphur, and much better than that which is drawn from common Sulphur.

Another Butter of Antimony.

Take four ounces of Regulus of Antimony well purified, and one pound of Sublimate Corrosive, powder them apart, then put them together into a Glass Retort; which place in a Fire of Sand, and give Fire at first gently; having Luted slightly a little Receiver to the Retort. There will come forth a Gummy Liquor which easily congeals and sticks to the neck of the Retort, which becoming stopped at length, and the Fire continuing, is apt to break for want of Air. To avoid which accident, hold a burning Coal to the neck of the Retort, which immediately melts the Butter and makes it drop into the Receiver. When no more comes forth, take away the Receiver, and substitute another half full of Water. Then increase the Fire till the Sand be red hot, and there will drop out about thirteen ounces of fluid Mercury which was before in the Corrosive Sublimate, which being changed by the addition of the Regulus, and the privation of the Corrosive Spirits which forsake the Mercury to fasten on the Regulus, resumes its first form. If it had been mixed with common Antimony, which is very Sulphurous, it would by virtue of the said Sulphur be converted into Cinnabar, as we have observed in the preparation of the Butter of Antimony with common Antimony.

This Butter has the same virtues as the former, and differs nothing from it, saving that the Emetic Powder or Algaroth is whiter.

Powder of Algaroth

Take about half of your Butter of Antimony, depurated by rectification; put it into an Earthen Pan with a quart of warm Water, and you shall see it precipitate presently in a Powder as white as Snow; the Water having weakened the Corrosive Spirits which kept the Reguline part of the Antimony in dissolution, and constrained them to quit the Body. The Precipitation being finished, stir it again, and then let it settle, and pour off the Liquor by inclination, which is to be kept a part; for this first Lotion contains in it all the Saline Spirits which adhered to the Antimony. It hath a very pleasant Acidity and is therefore the Philosophical Spirit of Vitriol Spirit of Vitriol. having washed and Edulcorated the Powder, dry it and keep it. The Dose of this Powder is from 2 to 6 Grains. ‘Tis employed to cleanse the viscosities and impurities of the Stomach; it purges both upwards and downwards. ‘Tis good against the Dropsy, being mixt with other Purgatives to divert its Vomitive power downwards. The first Lotion is used in Julips for Fevers, rendering the same tart and agreeable. Observe that all Vomiting Medicaments, especially those of Antimony, must be taken with great caution. I advise those that use them to keep in Bed or near a Fire, and to fortify their Breast well; with which caution these Medicines are of great use. The Vomiting must be furthered either by putting the Finger down the Throat, or with fat Broths or warm Beer. But be sure not to drink any thing cold that day; for it would hurt the Stomach much, and consequently all the parts that draw their nourishment from it. Nor must you sleep during the Vomiting, but keep yourself awake and in action. Lastly, these Remedies are not fit for those that have a long Neck, a weak and narrow Breast, ill Teeth and a weak Head.

Mineral Bezoar.

Take the other half of the Butter of Antimony, weigh it, and put it in a good large Matrass; pour upon it by drops an equal weight of good Spirit of Nitre. Avoid the hurtful vapors issuing from it, and when you have poured in all the Spirit, and the dissolution is done, pour it into a little Alembick, and distill it to Siccity on a Fire of Sand. Pour again the like quantity of Spirit of Nitre upon what remains in the Body of the Alembick; however Evaporate it by distillation to Siccity. Put on new Spirit of Nitre the third time, and Evaporate as before. The matter in the bottom of the Gourd will be white, dry, and friable. Reduce it into fine Powder, and keep it carefully. This Powder is good against Poison, which it expels from the Center by Sweat. It is used also in all diseases caused by Serosities. The Dose is from 5 to 20 Grains, in Broths or other convenient Liquors.

Observe, that all these Powders are nothing but the Particles of Regulus of Antimony disguised, and that they act differently according to the nature of the Salts or Corrosive Spirits wherewith they are involved: and they may be easily reduced into Regulus by means of some reductive Salt, which takes away their covering, so that they return to Regulus, which you may again prepare indifferently as before.

Glass of Antimony.

Take Antimony in powder as much as you please, Calcine it with a gentle Fire in an Earthen Dish wide, not glazed and resisting the Fire; make the Calcination under a Chimney in an Airy place, and avoid the Sulphurous exhalations of the Antimony which are very hurtful, to the Breast especially. Stir the Powder during the Calcination, to keep it from clotting; which happening, powder it again in a Mortar and re-calcine it, and continue the Calcination till the Antimony smoke no more, and be reduced into Powder of the color of Ashes, and deprived of its superficial Sulphur, which would its Vitrification, or at least render it Opaque Glass. Then put this Calx into a Fire of Fusion in a very good Crucible, placed upon a little Earthen Plate. Give a violent Fire, and keep it so that the matter be in continual Fusion till it become very Diaphanous; which you shall know by putting into it the end of a little Iron rod, to which some little matter will stick, which you may knock off with a little Hammer; and when the matter is very transparent, pour it into a flat Copper Dish, and you shall have a very fair Glass of Antimony, yellowish, drawing towards red, prepared without addition of any thing.

Some use this Glass of Antimony in substance powdered, and mixed with some Conserve, Troche, or other solid form. ‘Tis a potent vomit. The Dose is from 3 to 6 Grains. You may also make an Emetic Wine with it by infusion, as with Crocus Metallorum.

The Correction of the Glass of Antimony.

Powder finely two ounces of Glass of Antimony, prepared as above, and three ounces and half of Nitre well refined; mix them together; then set an Earthen Pot not glazed, and resisting the Fire, in a Furnace amongst burning Coals, and having made it red hot, put into it a spoonful of the Powder; which being red hot also, put another in; and so continue by little and little, till all the Powder be heated red in the Fire. After which take the Pot from the Fire, and when it is cool, powder the matter finely, and Edulcorate it with two quarts of warm Water, which being poured on stir it nimbly and pour off the thick Water into another Vessel, leaving the coarser Powder in the bottom of the first; and as soon as it is settled pour off the Water by inclination, and dry the Powder for use, being a very good and commodious Vomit for all ages. The Dose is from 3 Grains to 20, in infusion of White Wine, or some other Liquor. You may likewise make a Syrup of it by infusing two ounces of this Powder in three quarts of juice of Apples, or Quinces well depurated, or White Wine in Balneo Maria, during 24 hours, filtering the Infusion afterwards through gray paper, and boiling it gently with three pounds of fine Sugar in a Vessel of Silver or Earth well glazed, to the consistence of a Syrup. The Dose is from 2 Drams to 6, tempered with two or three ounces of Spring Water. ‘Tis a very good vomit, and of ten times gives two or three Stools very gently.

Laxative Emetic Tartar.

Take four ounces of good Cream of Tartar, powder it finely, and pour upon it in a Gourd covered with its Head, as much Spirit of Salt Armoniack as to cover it two fingers high; set it in a Cellar twenty four hours. After which, set this matter in a little glazed Pot in a Furnace of Sand, adding an ounce of Glass of Antimony finely powdered. Then pouring to it a sufficient quantity of Water, make it boil for six or eight hours, filling the Pot from time to time. Afterwards Filter and evaporate upon hot Sand till it come to have a little skin on the top; then set it to cool in a Cellar, that it may the better Crystallize. ‘Tis a very excellent Medicine. The Dose for aged persons is from 10 to 15 Grains; and for the younger, from 1 to 6.


Of Mineral Cinnabar.

The Reviving of Mercury from natural Cinnabar, and the separations of the Sulphur thereof at the same time.

Take a pound of god natural Cinnabar, powder it finely, and mix it with a pound of good Salt of Tartar; put this mixture into a strong and well luted Earthen Retort, and placing in a Furnace with a naked Fire, fit a Receiver to it wherein put some cold Water. Give a gentle fire at first, which increase by little and little to make the Retort red gently. Then you shall see drop forth about eight ounces of fluid Mercury, and sometimes eleven, according to the goodness and pureness of the Cinnabar. Let the Vessels cool, and break the Retort, in which you shall find a reddish Mass, which you must boil in a Vessel of Glass, or good Earth, with four quarts of Water to the consumption of a third part. Then Filter the Liquor, which will be red; and the coarse unprofitable earthiness will remain in the Filter. Into this red filtered Liquor distill drop by drop some good distilled Vinegar, or other Acid: and the Sulphur will be precipitated in a very fine Powder, which you must Edulcorate by several Lotions with warm Water. When it is dry, you shall have the true Sulphur of Natural Cinnabar, to be used as an excellent Remedy in diseases of the Lungs and Breast. The Dose is from 6 to 15 Grains in some Conserve, or other convenient Vehicle.

The Precipitation of the Mercury of natural Cinnabar without addition.

Take several good Glass Matrasses of half a pint, with long necks, which Lute well with good Lute capable to resist the Fire: put into each four ounces of Mercury revived from Cinnabar, and place them in a Sand Furnace. Stop the Orfices of the Matrasses slightly to hinder any thing from falling into them. Give a Fire of the first degree for three weeks, at the end of which increase the Fire another degree, and continue the same during three whole Months, increasing the Fire from three weeks to three weeks, so that in the last three weeks the Sand may be red hot. The Mercury will be turned to a very red and shining Powder, which serves with good success against the POX, and other accidents. Two or three Grains made up into Pills with some Conserve is a very good Sudorifick, and you may increase the Dose to six Grains. It not only causes Sweat, but Purges by all the Emunctories, and corrects the corruption of the humours. ‘Tis a very excellent Remedy, which in many cases gives satisfaction both to the Sick and to the Physician.


Of Bismuth, or Tin Glass.

The Magistery of Bismuth.

Powder two ounces of Bismuth, and putting them into a Matrass, pour thereon six ounces of good Spirit of Nitre. Place the Matrass upon hot Sand till the Bismuth be all dissolved, as it will be in about half an hour. Pour the Solution hot into a great Earthen Pan containing eight or ten quarts of Spring Water, and the mixture will become like Milk, till growing clearer, the Bismuth forsaking the Spirits of Nitre which held it dissolved will be precipitated to the bottom in a white Powder. Which being settled, pour the Water off by inclination, and put fresh to it; repeat the Lotion so often till the Powder be well Edulcorated; then dry it in the Shade and keep it for use. ‘Tis a very good Cosmetick, serving to beautify the Face by being mixt in Pomatum, or in the Waters of Nymphea, Wild Tansy, and others. ‘Tis also used for the Itch, and all maladies of the skin.

The Flowers of Bismuth.

Bismuth as well as Zink may be sublimed with the addition of Saltpeter, or without addition, in the same manner as Antimony, to which we refer the Reader for avoiding of vain Repetition. The Flowers of Bismuth and Zink work great effects in Plaisters, to sweeten the Acrimony of the corroding humour of Ulcers, and to consume their superfluous Serosity. The Flowers prepared with the addition of Saltpeter may be turned into Liquor by melting in a Cellar like Salt of Tartar.

Glaser - The Complete Chemist - Mineralis 1 - Ores, Salts, Non-metals


Of common Salt.

The Purification of Salt.

Dissolve what quantity you please of Sea Salt in six times as much Rain Water, and set it in a Vessel of Pewter, Copper, or glazed Earth upon a little Fire; Filter the Solution through gray paper, and having Evaporated all the Humidity, you shall have a very white and well purified Salt.

The Calcination of Common Salt.

Put what quantity you please of Sea Salt into an Earthen Pot which resists the Fire, cover the same with its covering and put Fire round about it (which they call Ignis rota) and when the Salt begins to be hot, it will crackle and be reduced into Powder; continue the Fire, (but moderately) till the Salt make no more noise. Then let the Pot cool, and you shall find the Salt calcined and deprived of all superfluous humidity. This is called Decrepitated Salt; The Chymists use it to Regalise Aqua fortis, as we shall show in the following Chapter of Nitre.

The Spirit of Salt.

Artists have tried divers ways to extract the Spirit of Salt with ease. Some distill’d Calcined or Decrepitated Salt alone, and without addition with a strong Fire; but besides that Salts being in Fusion penetrate and break all vessels they pertinaciously with-hold the Spirits. Others attempt to reduce Salts into Spirits, and afterwards into sweet Crystals by means of an Earthen Retort with a hole in the top, by which they put some drops of Water upon the Salt which must be melted in the said Retort with a strong Fire, and then they stop the hole til the vapor of the Water put into the hole be passed into the Receiver; and thus they continue till according to their opinion all the Salt be converted into Spirit. But as we have shown that the Vessels containing the Salts melted in a violent Fire, cannot resist long; and since Salts retain their Spirits whilst they are in Fusion, I conceive no body should amuse themselves with such preparations. The true way to Extract this Spirit with ease is, to mix Salt with some Body that may hinder its Fusion, but it must be such a Body as may communicate nothing of its own, as Potters Clay, or Bole.

Take therefore two pounds of Common Salt not decrepitated (because in this Calcination it loses part of its Volatile Spirits, especially be decrepitated with a gentle Fire without Fusion) dry it in a Basin with a gentle fire in order to be finely powdered, and mix it with eight pounds of Potters Earth, or Bole pulverized in like manner; put this mixture to a Glazed Retort, so that the third part be void, and place it in a close Reverberatory Fire. Fit a great Glass Receiver to the Retort, luting well the joynts and give a very small Fire the first six hours, during which the Phlegm will come forth; then increase it a little during other six hours, and the Volatile Spirits will come forth and appear in the Receiver like white Clouds. Continue to increase the Fire from six hours to six hours to the utmost violence. The whole operation will be finished in twenty four hours. After which leave the Vessel to cool, unlute them, and keep the Spirit in a very strong Vial. The Odour of it is sufficiently sweet, its savor agreeably Acid, and its colors yellow as Gold.

This Spirit may be rectified by an Alembick in Balneo Mariae, and about three quarters drawn off by distillation, which will be Phlegm and some Spirits mixt confusedly to gether; the other quarter left in the Gourd will be a more corrosive Spirit, improperly called Oil, which keep apart from the other. But note that the corrosive Spirit must be put into a very strong Vial of very good Glass; otherwise it will corrode the same.

The Volatile Spirit is an excellent Remedy against the Stone and Gravel, it powerfully dissolves the Tartar and Viscosities of the Body, it opens the obstructions of the Liver and Spleen; it gives great help to the Dropsy by quenching thirst; it cures the Jaundice, and hinders Gangrene; and being mixt with Oil of Soap it assuages the pains of the Gout and dissipates the Nodosities. The Dose of this Spirit is from 10 to 30 drops, or else to a grateful acidity in convenient Liquors. The Corrosive Spirit may be employed for dissolving of Metals.


Of Nitre, or Saltpeter.

Nitre, or Saltpeter []] is drawn out of the Earth, and out of the ruins of Houses, Vaults, and Cellars, especially out of Stables, by reason of the great quantity of Volatile Salt in the Urine and Excrements of Animals, which is united to the Salt of the Earth by the continual action of the Air. Authors call it sometimes Cerberus, the Infernal Salt, the Dragon, Serpent, &c. But we stand not upon names. As for the choice of it, it must be white, crystalline, in long Hexagonal Needles; the taste must be Acid inclining to Sourness or Acerbity; and if it exhales totally from a burning Coal, ‘tis a sign of its goodness and pureness; but if it leave any remainder upon the Coal, it contains too much impurity, in which case it must be purified before it be employed for Chymical Operations.

The Purification of Nitre.

Put what quantity of Nitre you please into a Copper Basin, and pour upon it three or four times as much Rain Water. Make it boil upon a little Fire till the Nitre be dissolved, then strain it through a woolen Cloth into an Earthen pan, which expose in a cold place twenty four hours. At the end of which you shall find the Nitre reduced into fair transparent Crystals. Pour off the Water into a Basin, and Evaporate a third part of it, and set the rest to Crystallize as before. Continue this till all the Saltpeter be turned into Crystals; but the first Crystals contain the purest of the Saltpeter, and therefore must be dried and kept apart, for preparations to be used at the Mouth. The other Crystals may serve to make Aqua fortis, or other things of less consequence.

Mineral Crystal, or Sal Prunellae.

Melt a pound of well purified Saltpeter in a Crucible that resists the Fire and penetration of Salts, and when it is very fluid, throw into it by little and little an ounce of Flowers of Sulphur; which being exhaled, cast the Saltpeter into a very clean Basin, and spread it abroad; then break it and keep it dry in some vessel well stopt. ‘Tis an excellent Remedy against the putrid malignant Fevers called Prunella, or Burning, from whence ‘tis termed Lapis Prunella. The Dose is from twelve Grains to one Dram in ordinary Ptisane [barley water, or tea of pleasant taste], or some other convenient Liquor.

Some make use of purified Saltpeter without preparing it with Sulphur; which I disapprove not, because the Sulphur carries away with it part of the Sulphurous Volatile Salt of the Saltpeter, and so deprives it of the purest part of itself.

An Antifebril Salt, or a Salt against Fevers.

Take two ounces of purified Saltpeter, and two ounces of Flowers of Sulphur, powder them, and put them into a good large Retort; pour thereon six ounces of the Water of distilled Urine, and place it in a Sand Furnace, so that the Sand be not higher than the matter, and that two thirds of the Retort be out of the Sand in the Air. Fit to it a great Receiver, but Lute it not, because the Spirits issue out of these matters with such violence, that if there be no air, the Vessels break. Begin to distill with a very small Fire, and when no more humidity comes forth, increase the Fire by little and little, but not too hastily; for as soon as the Sulphur and Saltpeter begin to melt, they will flame, and drive out their Spirits impetuously in red fumes into the Receiver; which being all come forth, let the Vessels cool, and you shall find in the bottom of the Retort, being broken, a fixed Salt of a bitterish taste, which you must put into a little Earthen Gourd, and pour upon it the Spirit contained in the Receiver, to unite it to its proper body. Reject as useless the Flowers of Sulphur sublimed in the Receiver, and cover the Gourd with another Vessel, and set it upon hot Sand for three or four hours, during which the fixed Salt will be dissolved in its proper Spirit. Filter the Solution and Evaporate it gently to siccity; you shall have a Salt white as Snow, of a very agreeable Acid taste, which you must keep in a Vial well stopped. ‘Tis a very excellent Remedy in continual and intermitting Fevers. It powerfully resists putrefaction, and opens all the obstructions of the body. ‘Tis given in the beginning of fits, in some convenient Liquor. The Dose is from 8 to 30 Grains.

Sal Polycrestes, or of many uses.

This preparation comes in place, because Nitre is the Base of it. Take a pound of purified Saltpeter, and a pound of Sulphur; reduce them together into powder; then take a good Earthen Pot that resists the Fire and has a flat bottom. Set it in a Wind Furnace with Coals round about, which kindle by degrees to preserve the Pot; and when the Pot is red hot, put in about two ounces of the mixture and stir it: the matter will flame presently, and the Volatile parts of the Nitre will exhale with part of the Sulphur. When the Flame is ceased, put two ounces more in, stirring the same continually. Do thus till all the mixture be employed. Then Calcine it by stirring it six hours more, during which the matter must be always red hot without melting; which would retain the burnt odour of the Sulphur, and the Salt would be grayish: but with these cautions you shall have a Salt of a Rose colors without smell, and of a bitterish taste. It may be used without more preparation; or if you desire it yet purer, dissolve it in a good quantity of warm Water, and having Filtered it, Evaporate it gently in some glazed Earthen Vessel till it have a scum upon it; then set it in a Cellar, and it will Crystallize at the bottom and sides of the Vessel. The Figure of this Salt is square, much like that of common Salt. ‘Tis used against obstructions of the Liver, Spleen, Pancreas, and Mesentery; it unloosens Viscous matter and Purges gently downwards. The Dose is from two Drams to six. ‘Tis usually dissolved overnight with Spring Water, and taken the next morning. Persons whose Nervous parts are weak and delicate, must wholly abstain from all sorts of preparations of Nitre, as Crystal Mineral, and Sal Polycrestes; which are not to be put into other compositions but to sharpen them and make them more penetrating, or to temper their heat; in which case the dose must be less than that of the other Medicaments; as for example, with the weight of two or three ounces of Senna it suffices to put half a Dram or two Scruples of Mineral Crystal, or twice as much of Sal Polycrestes.

Spirit of Nitre.

Take two pounds of Saltpeter refined in Powder, and eight pounds of common Bole or Potters Earth dry’d and powdered; mix them together, and put them into a great Retort so that the third part thereof be empty; place the same in a close Reverberatory Fire, fitting to it a great Receiver, and luting the joynts very well. Let the Fire be gentle at first, and increase it from six hours to six hours to the utmost violence. A Phlegmatic Water first comes out, then a Spirit, which during the distillation appears as red as Fire; which redness proceeds from the internal Sulphur of the Saltpeter, and has given occasion to some Authors to term this Spirit the Blood of the Salamander. The distillation is usually finished in twenty four hours; which ended, let the Vessels cool, then unlute the Receiver, mollifying the Lute with wet Linnen; and keep the Spirit in a strong Vial.

‘Tis a good Remedy against the Colick, and against all obstructions, Fevers, and the Pestilence. The Dose is from 6 to 20 drops in some convenient Liquor.

Aqua fortis.

Though Aqua fortis is made several ways, and sometimes with the addition of Alum, Vitriol, Verdigris, and other things, yet we shall insert the preparation of it in this Chapter of Saltpeter, because tis this which gives it its principle dissolving virtue. It has its name from its force of dissolving almost all Metals, and Minerals, even Gold too if it be Regalified by the addition of Salt Armoniac or common Salt. Now, to make good Aqua fortis, take three Pounds of Saltpeter and as much of Vitriol, or green Copperas; mix and powder them grossly, and put them into a Luted Retort in a close Reverberatory Furnace; fit a large Receiver to the Retort, and having Luted the joynts exactly well, give a very gentle Fire for eight hours to make the Phlegm come forth; then increase the Fire one degree, and you shall cause reddish Spirits to stream out; keep the Fire in that condition four or five hours; then increase it little and little to the utmost violence, quite opening the covering of the Furnace and that of the Ash hole. Continue the Fire till the heat of the Receiver abate, and wait not till it become clear; for though you should continue the Fire many days, the Spirits would be in continual agitation by the heat. But as soon as the Furnace and Vessels begin to lose their heat, the Spirits settle to the bottom and the Receiver grows clear. This operation is usually finished in twenty hours. The Vessels being cool,unlute the Receiver, and keep the Water in a strong Bottle well stopped with Wax.

You may also make Aqua fortis with Roche Alum and Saltpeter, and sometimes with addition of other ingredients; but being the preparation of these Waters is not different from this, I will not enlarge this Book with them, I will only give notice to the Reader, that the Aqua fortis made with Roche Alum and Saltpeter is to be preferred before that made with Vitriol for preparing red or white Precipitate, which is to be employed for diseases of the skin. Which is also to be observed in the preparations of the Precipitates above described, according to the different intention of using the said Remedies.

Aqua Regis, or, Water to Dissolve Gold.

This Water takes its name from its virtue of dissolving Gold, the King of Metals. Its Base is Spirit of Nitre or Aqua fortis, which becomes Regal by the addition of Salt Armoniac, or Common Salt, in manner following.

Take four ounces of Salt Armoniac unpurified and pulverized, put it into a great Matrass, and pour upon it a pound of good Aqua fortis; place the Matrass upon Sand moderately hot, that the Aqua fortis may gently dissolve the Salt Armoniac. Stop not the Matrass lest it should break, and avoid the vapors which rise when the Aqua fortis begins to act upon the Salt Armoniac; for they are fierce Spirits which cannot be condensed any more, and are very hurtful. As soon as you shall see the Salt Armoniack dissolved, remove the Matrass from the Sand, and when it is cold put the Water into a Vial, and stop the same with a Bladder and Wax.

Another Regal Water.

Put into a Retort half a pound of Sea Salt or Sal Gemma in Powder, and pour thereon a pound of good Spirit of Nitre, or good Aqua fortis; then distill in a Sand Fire into a Receiver till the Salt remain dry in the bottom of the Retort, and keep the water in a Vial well stopped.

Take a pound of Sea Salt, or Sal Gemma, and as much of good Saltpeter; powder them finely, and mix them with eight pounds of common Bole powdered; then distill them with a Retort in a Reverberatory Fire, in the same manner as we have directed the distillation of Spirit of Nitre, and you shall have a Regal Water which will easily dissolve Gold. These three sorts of Regal Water are equally good.


Of Salt Armoniac.

The Salt Armoniac of the Ancients was found in divers parts of Asia, and particularly in Lybia [Lydia ?], in places where the Camels of Caravans rested, whose Urine was imbibed in the Sand, and the Volatile Salt thereof was sublimed by the Rays of the Sun to the surface of the Sand; and they of the Country gathered it up to sell to other Nations. But the modern Salt Armoniac is compounded of Sea Salt, Chimney Soot, and the Urine of Animals. These three are so artificially mixt and incorporated, that though the Sea Salt be very fixed, yet being mixed with the Volatile Salts of Urine, and Soot, there arises a Compound of them, which though less Volatile than the said Salts, yet cannot resist the Violence of the Fire: for if you put it into a Crucible amongst burning Coals, it flies all away. But this composition may easily be destroyed by separating the Volatile Salts from the Sea Salt by the addition of some matter to fix and retain it. As for the manner of preparing it, I will not increase this Book by setting it down, since the said Artificial Salt is commonly and cheaply enough to be had from the Druggists. But since it is usually full of impurities, we begin with the purifying of it.

The Purification of Salt Armoniac.

Powder a pound of Salt Armoniac, and dissolve it in a Gourd upon hot Sand with three pounds of Rain water; Filter the Solution through gray Paper, and Evaporate it to Siccity, and you shall have a very pure Salt as white as Snow. This Salt provokes Sweat and Urine, and resists putrefaction. ‘Tis used in Quartan Agues, and outwardly against Gangrenes, and in Eye waters. The Dose is from 8 to 24 Grains in some Broth or other convenient Liquor.

The Flowers of Salt Armoniac.

Pulverize together a pound of Salt Armoniac and as much Common Salt, and put them into a Gourd covered with its head, and place the same in a Sand Furnace; give a gentle Fire at first, increasing it by little and little till you see the Salt Armoniac ascend into the Head like Meal; then continue the Fire in the same degree for five or six hours. After which let the Vessels cool, and gather off what is ascended into the Head, and mix it with new Salt, and sublime as before; Repeat this thrice, and you shall have Flowers well purified.

These Flowers being purer than Salt Armoniac simply purified by Solution, Filtration, and Coagulation, act with more efficacy; so that the Dose is but from 4 to 12 and 15 Grains. Their use is for Chronical Diseases.

They may be also prepared with Filings of Steel, mixing an equal quantity thereof with Salt Armoniac; and the Flowers have the more force and virtue, in that they are impregnated with a portion of Mars which increase their aperitive virtue.

The Urinous Volatile Spirit of Salt Armoniac.

We have showed in the beginning of this Chapter that Salt Armoniac is compounded of the Salt of Urine and that of the Soot of Chimneys (which are very subtle and Volatile Salts) and of Sea Salt, which is an Acid Salt and more fixed than the other two. These three Salts mixt together make but one, which holds a mean between the Volatility of the two former, and the fixedness of the latter. And though this mixture seems perfect, and the conjunction of these Salts of several families inseparable; yet when you well understand their qualities and properties, you will separate them very easily. The ensuing operation will instruct you. Powder and mix together a pound of Salt Armoniac and as much of Salt of Tartar; make them into a Paste with four or five ounces of Water, which put into a Glass Gourd, whereunto fit an Alembick with a Receiver, and having luted the joynts exactly, place the Gourd in a Sand Furnace. Begin the distillation with a moderate heat, which increase by little and little. As soon as the matter begins to heat, the Salts will act upon one another, and the Sea Salt will joyn with the Salt of Tartar, and they will both remain in the bottom of the Gourd. But the Urinous and Fuliginous Volatile Spirits will be loosened from their Fetters, and ascend through the Alembick into the Receiver. Continue a moderate Fire till all the Spirits are gone out, then increase it by little and little to make the Flowers ascend, which will stick to the Head and the upper part of the Gourd. The whole operation requires eight or ten hours. Let the Vessels being cool be unluted, and you shall find the Urinous Volatile Spirit in the Receiver, and the Flowers in the Head and upper part of the Gourd, and in the bottom thereof, a fixed Mass containing the Acid Sea Salt with the Salt of Tartar. These three substances must be kept apart. The Volatile Spirit is one of the most excellent Remedies that can be invented; for it opens all obstructions in general, and acts powerfully by Sweat and Urine. ‘Tis very good in Fevers, especially the putrid, in Palsies, Epilepsies, Hysterical fits, and the Plague, resisting all corruption. It likewise assuages the pains of the Gout, applied externally. It may be Sublimed into a Volatile Salt, by putting it into a long necked Matrass with a suitable Alembick having a large Betty, and placing the same in a very moderate Sand Fire. For this fiery Salt upon the least heat leaves its Phlegmatic Water which kept it in a liquid form. But ‘tis better to leave it in a liquid form than to sublime it into Salt, which is hard to be kept; whereas the Phlegm restrains it and hinders its activity; for which reason it may be given from 8 to 30 drops, but the Dose of the Salt is but from 3 to 8 or 9 Grains. The Flowers in the Alembick are nothing but part of the Salt Armoniack which was not closely mixed with the Salt of Tartar. They are of the same use as Salt Armoniack well purified. But the Mass remaining in the bottom of the Gourd affords an Acid Corrosive Spirit, as follows.

The Acid Spirit of Salt Armoniack.

Reduce into fine Powder the Mass remaining in the bottom of the Gourd after the foregoing distillation, and mix it with four times as much Bole in Powder. Put the mixture into a Retort of Glass or Earth well Luted, and distill it in a close Reverberatory Fire, observing exactly in this distillation all the circumstances described in the distillation of common Salt. You may rectify this Spirit in an Alembick in Balneo Maria and it will ascend easily. This Spirit is one of the greatest Dissolvents that we know; for it dissolves Gold, Copper, Iron, &c. and Volatilizes them in an Alembick by means of reiterated Cohobation. Besides which, ‘tis the most agreeable Acid that Chymistry hath invented. Some drops being given in Broth to those that have Fevers, for it tempers the inward heat by its subtlety and sharpness. It is also more Diuretical than other Corrosive Spirits. The Dose is from 6 to 30 drops, or to an agreeable Acidity.

The fixation of Salt Armoniac.

This fixation is made by mixing Salt Armoniac with some body that may hinder its exhaling in a violent Fire. To which purpose serve the Alkali Salts of Plants, of the Calx of Egg shells, and other shells, of Quicklime, and of the Calx of divers Minerals, and amongst others Zink, Lapis Calaminaris, and Hematites. Yet these Bodies cannot totally fix the whole body of Salt Armoniac, but retain only a part of it, namely the Sea Salt, letting go the Fuliginous and Urinous part which flies into the Air. The most usual way is to take equal quantity of Quicklime and Salt Armoniac, and to put them powdered together into a good Crucible amongst burning Coals. You shall presently see the Urinous Spirits disentangle themselves and fly away, but the common Salt which entered into the composition stays behind with the Quicklime, and being melted therewith runs in the Crucible like Oil. Cast this melted matter into a Basin or Mortar heated, and let it cool. You shall have a transparent Mass like Crystal, which may be reduced into little parcels whilst it is a little warm, and kept in a Vial well stopt with Wax. ‘Tis a very good Caustic, and serves commodiously for Cauteries. If this Salt be left to the Air, it dissolves in a few dayes into Liquor, which you must Filter. It serves for the Resuscitation of Metals into fluid Mercury, as some think.


Of Roche Alum.

The name of Alum is given to divers matters. First, there is a sort of Talc, which they call in Latin ‘Alumen scissile’, because it may be cut into transparent Leaves like Glass. There is another Species called ‘Alumen Plumosum’, or ‘Lapis Amiantus’ [asbestos?]. But these serve but little for Physick, and therefore I shall only insist upon Roche Alum, which is a Mineral Salt, Earthy and Acrimonious, full of an Acid Spirit. It is often found condensed in the Veins of the Earth, and sometimes ‘tis drawn from Aluminous Springs, by Evaporation. It is likewise found in Mineral Stones, from which it is drawn by dissolving the same in Water, and afterwards Evaporating it.

The Purification of Alum.

Powder and dissolve of Roche Alum in sixteen pounds of Rain Water; Filter the Solution, and Evaporate and Crystallize it in a cool place, as you would proceed with any other Salt; and by this means you shall have it pure and fit for all preparations.

The Distillation and Calcination of Alum.

Put into a great Glassed Retort two pounds of Alum purified, so that three quarters of the Retort be empty, to leave room for the Ebullitions of the Alum. Place the Retort in a close Reverberatory Fire, and fit a large Receiver to it. Make the Phlegm come forth with a little Fire, which increase by degrees till the Spirits begin to stream forth in white Clouds. Then open the Registers by little and little, and continue the Fire to the utmost violence, after which let the Vessels cool. You shall find in the Receiver an Acid Spirit mixed with a good quantity of Phlegm. And having broken the Retort, you shall find the Alum there Calcined into a very white and light Mass. Rectify and separate the Spirit from its Phlegm, putting into a Glass Retort all that was in the Receiver, and placing the same in a Sand Furnace; as you distill with a little Fire, the Phlegm will come forth first, and as soon as you taste the drops Acid, change the Receiver, and continue the Fire till all the Spirits be ascended and there remain nothing in the Retort but a little Earth which the Spirits had brought away with them in the first distillation. This Spirit is good in Fevers being taken in ordinary drink. ‘Tis very Diuretick and opening, and is very proper for Cancers in the Mouth. But being unpleasant in taste, Spirit of Vitriol may serve in its place upon all occasions. The Phlegm is very good in Eye waters, for inflammations of the Eyes; it is also good for Erysipelas and to wash Sores and Ulcers. The Calcined Alum is employed outwardly to dry and consume superfluous flesh in old Ulcers and Sores. It may be likewise Calcined in a Crucible, or upon a Plate, but we have taught the way to make benefit of all its parts.

Observe that neither Roche Alum nor Vitriol need any mixture of Bole, or other fat Earth powdered, when you distill them, as Common Salt, Sal Gemma, Saltpeter, and others have to hinder their melting; because Vitriolick and Aluminous Salts contain a sufficient quantity of Mineral Earth of difficult fusion.

A Febrifugous Salt of Alum.

Powder half a pound of Calcined Alum, and put it into a Glass Gourd, and pour upon it two pounds of good distilled Vinegar. Digest them in hot Sand till the Alum be dissolved; Filter the Solution and after Evaporation of the third part, set the rest to Crystallize in a Cellar. Pour off by inclination the Water above the Crystals, and Evaporate and Crystallize again till you have drawn out all the Crystals; which dry and mix with a like quantity of Nutmegs and Mineral Crystal; of which being finely powdered you may with happy success give a Dram in intermitting Fevers, especially such as proceed from corruption and abundance of Humors. This Powder is taken in Wine or some other proper Liquor in the beginning of the fit.


Of Vitriol.

Vitriol is a Mineral Salt near of kin to Roche Alum, but containing in it some Metallick substance, especially Iron or Copper. There are several sorts of it, which differ in color and taste by reason of the divers substances wherewith they are mixed. That which is blue, compact, and in great Crystals is called Vitriol of Cyprus, though it comes from Hungary. It is very bitter and sharp, because it contains much of the substance of Copper; and though the dearest of all, yet it is not better worth; and I would not advise any body to make use of it except for Eye water or outwardly by reason of the violent Vomitings which it causes. There is another sort of Vitriol which is greenish, and of a sweetish taste, and in small Crystals; being found in Sweden, Liege, and other parts of Germany. The best is most compact and dry, which being rubbed upon Iron, does not dye the same with the color of Copper; which color shows it to be mixed with Copper, and consequently more hurtful; whereas by not tincturing the same it shows that it partakes more of Iron, and is fitter for all preparations, whatsoever many Authors say to the contrary. There is also white Vitriol, which comes from Vitriol Springs, and is not charged with any Metallick substance, which gives the color to other sorts of Vitriol. All the several Vitriols are formed by Nature in the entrails of the Earth; but they are also made by evaporating the Springs which contain them, as also by Dissolution, Evaporation and Crystallization of Marcasites or Vitriolick Stones. But since Vitriol is usually charged with impurities, we begin with its purification.

The Purification of Vitriol.

Dissolve in Rain Water what quantity of Vitriol you please; put the Solution into Pitchers or Bottles, and set it to digest in Horse dung, or Balneo Maria for eight or ten days; during which, much earthiness will separate to the bottom; Filter the Liquor, and having Evaporated about the half, Crystallize the remainder; Evaporate again the Water above the Crystals; and so continue to Evaporate and Crystallize till all be turned into Crystals.

Vomitive Vitriol called Gilla.

Dissolve in Rain water, or May Dew, half a pound of white Vitriol, and reduce it into Crystals, as is shown in the Purification of Vitriol; reiterating the Dissolution, Filtration, and Crystallization four times. You shall have a Vitriol well prepared, fit to be used in Tertian or other Fevers proceeding from corruption of humors in the first Region; for it evacuates gently by Vomit. It likewise kills Worms, and resists putrefaction. The Dose is from 20 Grains to half a Dram in Broth, Cordial waters, or some other Liquor. Yet some go as high as a whole Dram; but this Dose is a little too strong for our Climate.

The Calcination of Vitriol.

That which is commonly called the Calcination of Vitriol is nothing but an exsiccation and deprivation of its superfluous humidity, which is effected either by ordinary Fire or Rays of the Sun. The former is thus. Put twelve pounds of Vitriol into an earthen Pot not Glazed, which place amongst burning Coals; and the Vitriol will soon be reduced into Water. Boil it to the consummation of the humidity, and till it become a hard compact Mass of a whitish gray color. If you continue the Fire longer, till the Pot be red hot, the Mass will become yellow and at length a reddish brown, which is that which they call Colcothar, wherewith Blood is staunched; it is also used in Lethargies, being put up the Nose, to awaken the Stupid senses by sneezing. ‘Tis also a great Desiccative for Sores and Ulcers.

The second Calcination is made by exposing it thinly spread to the Beams of the Sun in July, stirring it often that it may be better penetrated by the Sun, and reduced into a Powder as white as Snow, very light, and less weighty than the Vitriol by a third part. This is that which they call Sympathetic Powder, which they pretend cures Wounds after an admirable manner, being applied upon Linen dipped in the Blood of the Wound. But note that Roman Vitriol is required to the making of this Powder.

The Distillation of Vitriol.

Take eight pounds of Vitriol dried in the Sun, which is to be preferred before any other, as well by reason of the impressions it may receive from him, as because it is more open, Spongy, and apt to part with its Spirits. But in defect thereof, take Vitriol dried in the Fire to whiteness and no more: put it into an Earthen Retort, and place the same in a close Reverberatory Furnace, and fit to it a large Receiver, Luting the joynts thereof exactly. Let the Fire be small during ten or twelve hours, in which time all the Phlegm will come forth; then open a little hole in the top of the Furnace, and the Ash hole, to increase the heat a little, and drive the Volatile Spirit into the Receiver. But govern the Fire well; for if the first Spirits be never so little over stirred, they issue so impetuously that they break the Receiver. Increase the Fire at the end of another twelve hours by opening the hole above, and the Ash hole a little more than before; and continue to augment it by little and little to the utmost violence; which continue during three or four days, and you will see the Receiver continually full of white fumes; but when the red drops begin to appear, cease the Distillation and let the Vessels cool; for ‘tis a sign that the Vitriol begins to be deprived of all the Spirit it had, these red drops being the Caustic part of it.

Note that if you continue the Fire twelve days and nights, the Receiver will be found continually full of a white mist: you must also observe that Vitriol thoroughly dried in the Sun will yield its Spirits sooner because it is finer and more Spongy than that which is dried at the Fire, which is more compact and retains its Spirits more obstinately; when your Vessels are cold, unlute your Receiver with wet Linen, and pour out all that it contains into a body, unto which you must presently adapt an Alembick with a Receiver, luting all the joynts exactly, that the Volatile Spirit may not fly away; set your Body in Balneo Maria, and distill with a very gentle heat the Volatile, Sulphurous and sweet Spirit, and when you have separated three or four ounces, change the Receiver, that no Phlegm may come over into it. Preserve this Spirit in a good Viol very exactly stopped. Fit to it another Receiver, and augment the Fire till the Balneum do boyle. By this means the Phlegm will rise, and you must continue the Fire till no more come. So the Acid Spirit will remain in the Body, which cannot rise with the heat of the boiling Bath. Pour that which remains into a Retort, and set it in a Sand Furnace, and fit a Receiver thereto, and distill about half of this Acid Spirit, which will be clear as Rock water. You may either reserve and keep apart that which remains in the Retort, or changing the Receiver push on and increase the Fire, and make it distill over and keep these two Spirits severally. The Volatile Spirit, the sweet Sulphur which rises first is very penetrating, and esteemed very effectual against the falling Evil. Its Dose is from 12 drops to one Dram, in any appropriate Liquor. The Phlegm is proper for inflammations of the Eyes, and to temper the Acrimony of Erysipelas, and to cleanse Wounds and Ulcers.

The first Spirit that ascends next after the Phlegm, is very Diuretick and incisive, and much used in hot and malignant Fevers. It restores the Appetite, and opens all obstructions, the Dose is augmented or decreased according as its acidity is more or less agreeable with compliance to the Patients taste.

The last Spirit is improperly called the Oil of Vitriol, and is no other than the weightier and more Caustic part of the Acid Spirit; it is principally used for dissolving Metals and Minerals.

The fixed Salt of Vitriol.

Put that which remains in the Retort after your distillation, which will be a Mass as black as a Coal, into an Earthen Vessel, and pour Rain water thereon by little and little, for if this Mass be not a while exposed to the Air, it will when it comes out of a Retort do the same thing as Quicklime. Continue so to pour Water thereon, till it rise four or five fingers height above it. After, set it in an earthen Pot to digest in hot Sand for seven or eight hours, stirring the matter often to promote the Solution of Salt. After, Filter and Evaporate the Solution till a film rise thereon, and let it shoot into Crystals. Pour off and Crystallize the Water also which swims on the first Crystals, and continue to Evaporate and Crystallize it till it be all Crystallized. These Crystals are reddish at first, but being dried and brought into Powder, they are as white as Snow. This Salt is nigh in its effect to Vomitive Vitriol, but its Dose is less, only from 8 to 20 Grains. You may after all proceed to sweeten the Earth which remains in the Filtration, and make use thereof with assurance for, to stay the immoderate Fluxes of the Belly, and spitting of Blood, and to dry and heal up Wounds and Ulcers, and in like manner to mix with Styptic Ointments and Plasters.

Sulphur of Vitriol.

Put into a Glass Body two pounds of purified Vitriol, and one pound of the Filings of Steel mingled together. Pour upon them distilled Vinegar to the full of one Finger’s height. Set a Head on the Body, and place it in hot Sand, and fitting a Receiver thereto, give it a small Fire at the beginning to make all the moisture rise by little and little. After, augment the Fire from degree to degree, till you have made the Sand red hot.

When your Vessels are cold take out, and powder what remains in the bottom of the Body, and digest it in a Matrass with fresh distilled Vinegar. Surmounting the matter three or four Fingers height, in Balneo Maria for three days. Then you will find the Menstruum colored, which decant off, and put again new Vinegar upon your matter, and digest it anew, and decant and reiterate the same operation until your Vinegar be tinged no more; then Filter all the decanted Liquor, and pour thereon good Oil of Tartar, a sufficient quantity to precipitate all the Sulphur of Vitriol to the bottom, which you must afterwards sweeten with warm Water, and then dry it. This is a good Remedy for the Asthma, and for the diseases of the Breast. Its Dose is from five to twelve Grains in any Pectoral Conserve or Confection.

There are some who pretend to make thereof a Laudanum without Opium, and prefer this Remedy above it, but experience hath given us to know the difference betwixt this Sulphur and its effects, and those of Opium duly prepared.


Of Crystal of the Rock.

Crystal, and all Stones generally, as well Precious and Transparent, as common and Opaque, have hard and unmalleable bodies, coagulated and hardened by the forcible action of a Salt and Stone generating Spirit. Their different color, hardness, and purity, speaks only the difference of the Womb wherein they were produced. But our principle design being to show their preparation, we will here teach that of Rock Crystal, which will serve for other Stones of the same nature.

The Tincture of Crystal.

Make your Crystal red hot in burning Coals, and quench it in a Basin full of Water, in which it will fall to pieces, so that it may easily be brought into impalpable Powder; of which take four ounces, and of Salt of Tartar purified one pound, and put them well mingled into a great Crucible, which being empty two third parts, cover it with its cover; place it in a Wind Furnace, and give it a small Fire at the beginning, lest the matter should rise and run over the Crucible, but when it begins to fall again, augment your Fire by little and little to the highest violence, and so continue till the matter dissolve, and become clear as Oil, and transparent as Glass; which you may know by putting into the matter a little Rod of Iron, unto which some small part thereof cleaving will serve you for a proof; and when it is very transparent cast it into an hot Mortar, and it will congeal immediately: beat it into Powder whilst it is yet hot, and divide it into two parts, and put one half thereof quite hot in a clean, dry, and hot Body, and put thereon good rectified Spirit of Wine by little and little to the height of four fingers, then put upon this another Bolts-head so to make up a circulating Vessel. Lute well the joynts, and set it in hot Sand, and digest it so that the Spirit of Wine may boil for three or four days and nights continually: your Spirit of Wine will fill itself with the Tincture, and having decanted that off from the matter, put new to it, and proceed as before, and continue to put to new, digest and decant, till the Spirit draw no more color. Then Filter all the Tinctures and distill them with a Glass Body and Head in Balneo Maria, and draw off three fourth parts, and it shall be as good Spirit of Wine as before, and the red Tincture will remain in the Body, which you must put in a Viol, and close it well.

Note that this Tincture is made better, if you take River Pebbles which are colored within with red, green, and blue veins. Both these tinctures open all Obstructions of the Body. They are serviceable in Melancholic and Hypochondriac diseases, for the Dropsy and Scurvy. The Dose is from ten to twenty drops in White wine, or some other Liquor, using them continually.

The Liquor of Crystal.

Put your other half of your dissolvable Glass of Crystal which you reserved in a Glass Plate, and expose it in a Cellar or other moist place, and in a few days it will be dissolved into a Liquor, which being Filtered through Cap Paper, will be clear as Rock water. This Liquor is very Diuretic, given from 20 to 30 drops in any agreeable Water or Decoction. Note that if you put upon this Liquor any Acid Corrosive Spirits, they will both together in a moment be converted into a dry and sufficiently hard Mass.

Magistery of Crystal.

Take one pound of the aforesaid Liquor, and put it into a Body with five or six pounds of Distilled Rain water. After, pour thereon good Spirit of Nitre drop by drop. This Spirit will cause a great Ebullition, because it works upon the saline part contained in this Liquor, and the Salt at the same time by a certain counter-working joyns itself with the Spirit and takes from it its Corrosiveness so that the substance of the Crystal is precipitated to the bottom in a fine and Snow white Powder, which you must sweeten well and dry.

This Magistery is very proper to strengthen the Stomach, having a virtue to destroy the acidity of humors, and to sweeten them, and hinder their fervor which causeth an appetite. You may take a Dram in Wine after food.

Note, that if you Evaporate and Crystallize the first and second Lotions of this Powder, you may extract thence very fair and good Saltpeter which proceeds from the incorporation of its Spirits with Salt Alkali of Tartar.


Of Coral.

There are divers Salts of Coral differing one from another in color and hardness, of which the red is the best, which must be chosen of a good red, well compacted and shining. It is diversely prepared, and may serve for a model to Pearls, Crabs eyes, and such like. We are nevertheless obliged to give notice that better effects are to be expected from these sorts of Stones reduced only on a Marble to an impalpable Powder, than when they are corroded by Acid Spirits, and precipitated with Salts; for Nature knows very well of her self to make these kinds of dissolution in Man’s body; and as the Acid Spirits lose their Acrimony, and sweeten themselves by working on these Bodies, we may believe that Nature makes the same operation in our Stomachs, when they are oppressed with any Acidity, which is the cause of many diseases.

Salt of Coral.

Coral being a body softer than Crystal needs neither to be Calcined nor quenched as Pebbles, for so soon as you put it in the Fire it becomes white and loses its fair Tincture, which is very Volatile, and wherein consists a part of its good properties and virtues. We must therefore be contented to reduce it into an Alcool, or impalpable Powder, and to put four ounces thereof into a pretty large Bolts-head, and to pour thereon very good distilled Vinegar, to four fingers height. A great Ebullition will arise presently by the working of the distilled Vinegar, and counter-working of the Coral, for which cause it is necessary that the Bolts-Head be large, that nothing may be lost. The working being over, place the Bolts-Head upon hot Sand for twenty four hours, at the end whereof you shall find the Vinegar changed in an almost Insipid Liquor. Its Acidity being destroyed by its working upon the Coral; decant this Liquor into some Vessel, and pour fresh distilled Vinegar on the Coral, and repeat the same Operation as before until the Coral be almost all dissolved, and there remain in the bottom an undissolved earthiness in a small quantity. Filter the Solutions first mingled together, through Cap Paper, and Evaporate them to dryness in a Glass Body in Balneo Maria.

Unto Salt of Coral is attributed a virtue to purify the mass of Blood, and it is given to the Sick in Melancholy cases. The Dose is from 6 to 20 Grains in some convenient Liquor.

Magistery of Coral.

Dissolve the Coral as we have now said, with distilled Vinegar; but instead of Evaporating away the Solution, instill thereon drop by drop good Oil of Tartar made by Deliquium, and you shall see immediately the Coral precipitate to the bottom of the Water in a very white Powder, which must be dulcified by many washings. It is serviceable for the same purposes as the Salt, but for that it worketh less forcibly. Its Dose is greater, it may be given to the weight of one Dram.

The Tincture of Coral.

Many have imagined that they knew how to draw the Tincture of Coral, and almost all Authors have given us thereof preparations as true as Aesop’s Fables. For many would draw this Tincture with Spirit of Oak Wood, - of Guaiacum, &c. Others with the Spirit of the Crusts of Bread, and such like: and having set the Coral to digest in these Menstruums (which rectified are clear as Water) because they are exalted by the digestion, by reason of a Salt Volatile Sulphur which they contain, seeing the color red in the Menstruum without considering that the digestion had given it this color, as well alone as without Coral; they took the shadow for the substance, and a foreign Tincture for the Coral. Others amuse themselves with a Calcination of Coral, either alone or with Nitre: but the Coral remained white, and lost it Tincture with the least heat of the Fire, which they regarded not at all; but this notwithstanding they forbore not to put a good Spirit of Wine upon the Body, which by digestion, and the help of a fixed Salt of Nitre, with which the Coral was Calcined, is exalted and becomes red as the Tincture of the Salt of Tartar. By such or such like means some imagine they may obtain a true Tincture of Coral, to which without reason they attribute surprising effects. I could yet give the Reader many more examples to keep him from relying on many ridiculous receipts, but I content myself with this one word by the way. And as I pretend not to put any Preparation in this little Treatise, of which I have not made trial with my own hands, I will give forth my manner of a Tincture of Coral, which seems to me reasonable and true.

Take four ounces of good red Coral, which make into a subtle Powder and mingle with a like quantity of Salt Armoniac, sublimed three times with Decrepitated Salt, as we have taught you in the Chapter of Salt Armoniac. Put this mixture into a small Body and Head, set it on a small Sand Furnace, and fit a Receiver to them, Lute well the joynts of the Vessels, and give a small Fire at the beginning, augmenting it by little and little, you shall see a Volatile Urinous Salt arise, which will separate itself from the fixed Sea Salt, which Volatile Salt is contained in the Flowers of the Salt Armoniac, and which fixed Salt joyns and incorporates itself with the Earthy substance of the Coral; after that this Volatile Spirit, which is small in quantity, shall have ascended and passed into the Receiver, you shall see the Flowers rise and stick to the head of the Alembick, and upper part of the Body, which will be tinged with divers colors as red, green, blue, very pleasant to behold, and contain in them the true Tincture of Coral; the Earthy part of the Coral white as Snow, remains in the bottom of the Body with the fixed Sea Salt, which contain the Flowers of the Salt Armoniac. Continue a moderate fire (for a great heat is not needed for this operation) until no more rise. The whole Operation may be done in a few hours. Then let the Vessels cool, and gather diligently what is Sublimed, and put it in a Bolts-head, and pour upon it a good Spirit of Wine to the height of four fingers, digest this some days in Balneo Maria, and it will be filled with a very red Tincture, and will rob the Flowers of all their pretty colors which they had before, for they remain in the bottom of the Bolts-head white like the Flowers of Salt Armoniac. Filter the Tincture, and draw from it three fourths by an Alembick in Balneo Maria, and the Tincture will remain perfect in the bottom of the Body, which must be kept in a well stopt Viol.

This is a Sovereign Remedy to strengthen the Bowels, in opening Obstructions, and it purifies the Blood by Sweat and Urine. Its Dose is from 6 to 24 drops in some convenient Liquor.

Another Tincture of Coral.

The Tincture of Coral which we here discover is in use among many, and though it be not a true tincture of Coral, but rather an exaltation of the Sulphur contained in the Spirit of Wine which is used for the Menstruum and is exalted rather by the fixed Sal Nitre, wherewith the Coral is Calcined, than by the Tincture in the Coral, we will not forbear to give you a description thereof.

You must take one pound of Powder of good red Coral, and two pounds of Salt Peter purified. Mingle and grind them together in a Mortar. After, put this mixture in an Earthen Pot that can endure the Fire. Set the Pot amongst coals in a Wind Furnace, which you must kindle gently at first, that the matter be hot by little and little, and that the sudden violence of the Fire cause not the Pot to break at first; but when it is red hot you must continue a pretty violent Fire the space of six or eight hours. Then let the Vessel cool and break it, and powder the snow white Mass which you will find therein. Put this into a long neck Bolts-Head, and pour thereon a good Spirit of Wine to the height of four fingers, and set the Bolts-Head in digestion in Sand for two days, in which time the Spirit of Wine will be filled with a red Tincture, which must be poured off, and new Spirit of Wine put thereon, and the digestion continued in hot Sand, and again pour more off and on, till the Spirit of Wine be no more tinged. Then take all the Tinctures together, and put them into a Body of Glass, with a Head and Receiver well Luted, distill off your Spirit of Wine with a very gentle heat. There will remain in the bottom a yellowish Powder approaching towards a red, of lixiviat taste. The Spirit of Wine drawn from it may be reserved for the same or other uses; but the Salt which remains in the bottom of the Body, must be set in a Cellar with the Body open. The reddish Salt will be dissolved by attracting a moisture to it into a reddish Liquor, which must be kept in a Viol for use, which is this. Take two pounds of good Spanish Wine, and an ounce of the said Liquor, and mingle them in a Glass Bottle well stopped, and let them stand together in a cold place for the term of eight days; the Spanish Wine which was white will become red as Blood.

This Tincture is given to purify the Mass of Blood for the Falling Sickness, for to strengthen the Stomach, and to cleanse away all Viscosities, from half a Spoonful to a good great Spoonful every morning fasting, and continuing the use of it for some time.


Of Quick Lime.

Quick Lime is made of Pebbles or common Stones by a Calcination in a Furnace, and is practiced by Peasants themselves. It furnishes us with external Remedies, and amongst others the Water whereunto they have given the name of the Corrosive Water, and the Salt or Caustic Stone, which we will describe, not insisting upon many other preparations well or ill founded, and of little in use.

The Eating, or Corrosive Water.

Take two pounds of good Quicklime, well Calcined and newly made, put it into a great Earthen Vessel, and pour thereupon by little and little ten pounds of Rain water, and leave them together for two days, stirring them often. After, let the Lime settle, and decant the Water, which swims above and filter it, and put it into a large Glass Bottle, and put to it one ounce of Powder of Corrosive Sublimate, which will change from white to yellow, and descends to the bottom of the Vessel. Of this Water being settled, you may make use to mundifie Wounds and Ulcers, to consume the superfluities therein, and chiefly for Gangrenes, and in these cases the expert Chirurgion may add thereto on occasion, a fourth or a third part of the Spirit of Wine. The same thing may be observed in the diseases of the Eyes, and it may be tempered with appropriate Waters, and sometimes with Rain water, as the Artist thinks fit. The Calx which remains in the Vessel may be sweetened, dried and kept for all outward diseases which need Dessication.

The Caustic Stone.

Take two pounds of Quicklime, and two pounds of Pot Ashes, beat them together into powder, and Calcine them in a convenient Pot in a Potter’s Furnace. After making a Lye with them and Fountain, or River water, which Vapor away till it be dry, and there will remain a very sharp Salt. This you must put into a good Crucible, and melt it in a Wind furnace. And when it is well melted, cast it into an Earthen Basin, as in the Mineral Crystal, and after break it into little pieces whilst it is still hot, and put it into Vials well stopped with Wax; for otherwise these Stones will dissolve by attracting the moisture of the Air. The use of this Caustic Stone is too well known for me to insist upon it.


Of Arsenick.

Arsenick is a Mineral fuliginous and partly inflammable, as common Sulphur. There are three sorts of it, the first white which keeps the name of Arsenick; the second yellow, named Orpiment; the third red, called Realgar, or Sandarack. There is no difference in their preparation, that of the white will suffice for all. The principal preparations of this Mineral are, Regulus, Caustic Oil, Liquor, and fixt powder which are used outwardly with happy success, and some are bold to make use thereof inwardly, which I advise not, because nature furnishes us with other Remedies enough, less dangerous, and more safe.

Regulus of Arsenick, or Orpiment.

Beat into powder one pound of Arsenick (or Orpiment) with six ounces of Pot Ashes, and mix them with one pound of soft Soap. Put them into a good large Crucible, covered with another Crucible with an hole pierced through the bottom, through which the venomous Vapors may pass away. Set this Crucible in a Wind Furnace, and give it a little Fire at the beginning, still augmenting it by little and little, till the matter be melted. When the matter is well melted cast it into a deep picked Iron, Cornet, Cone, or Ingot, made hot and anointed with Wax and let it cool. You will find a small Regulus in the bottom, grained almost like the Antimonial Regulus.

Oil, or Corrosive Liquor of Arsenick.

Beat into Powder equal parts of Regulus of Arsenick and Corrosive Sublimate. Put them into a small Retort. Place it in Sand, and give a gradual Fire, and force over a gummy Liquor, which will distill like Butter of Antimony. This Liquor hath the same properties with that of Antimony but it is more violent. When the Butter is raised change your receiver, and increase the Fire a little, to make the Mercury come over, which distills into the Receiver alive and running; for the Spirits which held it before in the form of a Crystalline Salt, forsake it and betake them to the Regulus of Arsenick.

The Fixed Liquor of Arsenick.

Beat and mingle one pound of Arsenick with two pounds of Saltpeter. Melt them in one or more large Crucibles leaving of each one third part empty, by reason of the great Ebullition; and for the same cause the Fire at the beginning, and for two hours must be moderate. But when the Ebullition ceases, augment and continue the Fire till the matter smoke no more, and till it be liquid like Oil in the bottom of the Crucible. Then cast it into an hot Mortar, and when it begins to cool beat it to Powder, and expose it to the moist Air that it may dissolve into a Liquor, which Filter and keep in a Vial. It is used against malignant Ulcers, from the POX, Cankrous or Fistulate, and it is mixt with proper Waters to diminish its force.


Of Sulphur.

Sulphur is a refined, or earthy Grease, mingled with an Acid and Vitriolick Salt. There are two sorts of it, the one they call quick, which is such as it comes out of the Earth. The other is common yellow Sulphur, which is taken out of the first by melting, or else out of Mineral waters, from whence it is separated by Evaporating their humidity. You must make choice of that which is made up in small Rolls being yellow, inclining towards green, casting a clear blue flame, that goes not out, and leaves no earthiness behind it. Its internal use is principally for the Diseases of the Breast. It is also used against the Plague, because it resists putrefaction, and outwardly to resolve Tumors, to heal the Itch, Scabs, Tetters, and other external Maladies. It is diversely prepared.

Flowers of Sulphur.

Take a Body of good Earth, set it in a Furnace with an open Fire, yet so that it be encompassed well with Clay and Bricks, so that the Fire may neither appear nor breath out on high, but only through Holes or Registers, and the neck of the Body must be above the Furnace. Make a little Fire at first, that it may heat the bottom of the Body by little and little. Afterwards put thereunto half a pound of powdered Sulphur, and immediately fit an Head to your Body without Luting it, and increase your Fire one degree. And when you see the Alembick begin to fill with Flowers, be careful to continue your Fire in the same degree, for if the Fire be too hot the Sulphur that is already Sublimed will melt and fall down, and if the Fire be not strong enough, the Flowers cannot rise. When the Head is sufficiently full of Flowers, take it away, and at the same time set another in its place, and gathering out the Flowers empty this Head that it may be ready to set in the place of the other when it shall be full. And when you judge that your half pound of Sulphur is almost Sublimed, put another half pound into the Body, and continue your work with a regular Fire, changing your Head from time to time, collecting the Flowers, and putting new Sulphur in the Body, till you have a sufficient quantity of Flowers. And continue the Fire till there remain in the Body nothing but a very small quantity of light Earth. Note that all the Sulphur rises in Flowers without any separation of any thing, save a little light Earth in very small quantity, so that this Sublimation is not properly a Purification but a Rarification only, whereby the Sulphur is divided into very small particles, more dissolvable in their Menstruums and more easy to mingle in Compositions, and more proper to be used in the Maladies of the Breast. The Dose of the Flowers is from 10 to 40 Grains, in a New-laid Egg, or any Confiture, Opiate, Extract or Conserve.

The Acid Spirit of Sulphur.

The greatest part of those who have attempted any thing in Chymical Operations have imagined that they could draw from Sulphur an Acid Spirit, not only in great quantity, but easily, and that by several Instruments which everyone invented severally for his own use. But when their pretended Acid Spirit is well examined, it is found to be nothing but Phlegm, or a Spirit of Sulphur made with Saltpeter. The true and most easy method is this.

Provide a large well baked Vessel of gray Earth, in the midst whereof set a little Earthen Dish with the bottom upwards, and thereon place another more large, which must be of good Earth, and which will endure a Fire well, in which there is a pound of melted Sulphur. Put into this Sulphur some burning Stone Coals, such as are those of Liege, to kindle it, and cover the Earthen Vessel with a Bell Glass, either hanging on a Cord or supported by three small pieces of Glass, for the brim of the Bell Glass must not touch immediately the Earthen Vessel, but must have the distance of a Fingers thickness round about, that the Sulphur may burn continually and not go out, and smokey fumes of the Sulphur may exhale, so that the Spiritous Acid Salt of Sulphur may be rarified and dissolved into Liquor, and cleaving to the Bell, fall down thereupon drop by drop into the Earthen Vessel. When the Sulphur is consumed put in more, and so continue this work till you have sufficient. Note that you must moisten your Bell at first, and work this in a moist time, between the two Equinoxes, if it may be. The properties of Spirit differ not from those of the Spirit of Vitriol; some believe them to be more specific against the Plague it self. It is given in Julips, and other Liquors to the degree of an agreeable sharpness.

Milk, or Magistery of Sulphur.

Take four ounces of Flower of Sulphur, two ounces of Salt of Tartar, and six pounds of Rain water. Put them all into a Stone Pot, and boil them in s Sand Furnace five or six hours; in this time the Sulphur will be dissolved and the Liquor become red. Filter it warm, and mingle it after it is filtered, with Water five or six pounds more. Afterwards, pour upon it by little and little some good distilled Vinegar, or other Acid in its stead. The Liquor will be immediately turned into Milk, and the Magistery will be precipitated by little and little to the bottom of the Vessel. Decant off the Liquor which swims above, and sweeten the Powder by many washings with hot Water. After, dry it and keep it.

The use of this Magistery is like that of the Flowers, but the Dose is less, because it is more open, and five Grains of this Powder avail more than ten of the Flowers, and ten Grains of the Flowers more than twenty Grains of common Sulphur.

Balsam of Sulphur.

Put into a Bolts-head two ounces of Flowers of Sulphur, and pour thereon eight ounces of Oil of Turpentine well rectified. Set your Bolts-head on Sand, and give it a small Fire at the beginning, and increase by little and little till your Sulphur be dissolved, which will be done in four or five hours in a sufficiently moderate heat. The Oil of Turpentine will be tinged with a Ruby color, and will dissolve all the Sulphur. But whilst the Vessel cools, one part of the Sulphur, which the Oil cannot hold up in its liquid form, re-incorporates or congeals again. You must pour out that which is clear and red into a Viol, and keep it well stopped. This Oil cures the Ulcers of the Lungs. It is good against the Plague, and against all contagious Diseases, both to heal and preserve from them. Its Dose is from 5 to 15 drops in some convenient Liquor. An excellent Oil for outward uses may be made with Oil of Linseed, instead of Oil of Turpentine, and this Oil is incomparable both for healing Contusions and Ulcers, for it is an Anodyne and sweetens the Acrimony of humors.


Of Ambergreece

Ambergreece is a sort of Balsam, rising from the bottom of the Sea altogether liquid, but it is congealed and hardened by the coagulative Spirit of the Sea Salt, and Rays of the Sun. It is commonly found on the Indian Sea shore. It is not always of an equal goodness, nor of the same color, which proceeds from the lesser or greater impurities it meets with in its congelation. The best is gray inclining to yellow, of a sweet and fragrant odour, and melting easily in heat. Ambergreece is one of the noblest works of Nature, and needs no great preparation, producing such as it is unprepared great effects, both for strengthening the Heart, Stomach, and Brain, and for refreshing the Vital and Animal Spirits. But its Bituminous quality hindering it from mixing easily with watery Liquors, we obtain our design therein and reduce it to an Essence as follows.

Essence of Ambergreece.

Take two Drams of good Ambergreece and one Scruple of good Levant Musk, powder them well, and put them into a Bolts-head, and pour on them four ounces of good Spirit of Wine. Fit to your Bolts-head another lesser [smaller ?], Lute well the joints, and set it to digest in Horse dung moderately hot for some days, then whilst it is yet hot pour off the tinged Wine, for this Essence congeals of itself, and melts again with the least warmth of the hand: It augments Seed, and makes man or woman capable for Generation; it is taken from 10 to 15 drops in Spanish Wine, or Mead, or other Liquor.


Of Karabe, or Amber.

Karabe usually called Yellow Amber, or Succinum, is a Rosin or Bitumen very pure and well digested, which distills out of the Veins of the earth into the Sea, where it is hardened by the congelative Spirit of the Sea Salt. There are of it several sorts, of which the white is best, next to it the yellow, and the black after the yellow. It is used in Powder without other preparation, for Catarrhs, Gonorrhea’s and Whites; but reduced into Oil, and Volatile Salt, it obtains thereby very great virtues, as we shall show.

Distillation of Amber.

Take three pound of Amber grossly beaten, put it into a large Retort, leaving it half empty, set it in a Sand Furnace, and fit thereto a large Receiver; lute the joints very exactly, and give it gradual heat. There comes over first a Phlegm, then a Spirit, and after an Oyl and volatile Salt mingled confusedly. Increase and continue the Fire till nothing more come over, then let all cool, and take away the Receiver. You will find in the Retort a black matter like Asphaltum. Pour into your Receiver about two pound of hot water, and shake it well together with all the substances found in it, to the end that the volatile Salt sticking to the sides of the Receiver or mingled in the Oyl may be dissolved therein. After, pour all out into a Glass Viol, and separate the Oyl from the Water, containing in it the volatile Salt and Spirit of Amber.

The Rectification of the Oyl of Amber.

Mingle the Oyl separated from the other matters, with so many sifted ashes as will suffice to drink it up, and make a pretty dry mass. Then put this mass into a Retort, and distill it in a pretty gentle fire. The first Oyl that comes over will be pretty fair and clear. You must keep it apart for internal uses. Continue and increase the fire by little and little to raise your red Oyl. When no more comes over, cease your fire, and keep your Oyls severally. The first is excellent against the Apoplexy, Epilepsie, Palsie, and all the Diseases of the Mother, and against the retention of Urine. Its Dose is from three to ten drops, in any proper Liquor. The red Oyl may be used in Unguents and Plaisters. It fortifies the Nerves, and dissipates Swellings and it is with good success rubbed into Paralytic Members.

The Sublimation and Purification of the Volatile Salt of Amber.

Take the aforesaid Liquor separated from the Oyl, which contains in it the Phlegm, Spirit, and volatile Salt of Amber. Filter it, to separate the oily substance the better from it, and put it into a Bolts-head with a long neck. Pour thereon drop by drop good Spirit of Salt, which will cause a great boyling up in the glass because of the action it hath upon the volatile Salt of Amber; for this Salt is nigh to the nature of the Volatile Salt of Animals. When the ebullition is over, put the Liquor into a Body and cover it with an head, and distilling it in a Sand Furnace, draw off the insipid water. The volatile Salt of Amber hath by reaction killed the acidity of the Spirit of Salt, and abides with it in the Stills bottom. After all the insipid water is come over, augment your fire one degree, to cause your Salt to sublime, which rises and cleaves partly to the head, and partly to the top of the body of your Still. Let your Vessel cool, and gather carefully the volatile Salt, which will be very subtle and penetrant, and will have the taste of sublimed Sal Armoniac. But to make it yet more subtle, you must mingle it with equal quantity of pure Salt of Tartar, and put this mixture in a small Body and Head, and sublime it in a Sand Furnace, and the Salt of Tartar will retain with it all the Spirit of Salt which was united and incorporated with the Salt of Amber in the first sublimation: and this Salt thus re-sublimed will be very pure and white as Snow, and must be kept in a Viol, very exactly well stopped, for it is so penetrant and volatile that it cannot be long kept without much trouble.

But these Salts are used against all Obstructions in the Body, against the Palsie and retention of Urine and against the Jaundice. It evacuates strongly by Sweat and Urine. The Dose of the former is from 20 grains to a Dram, but the second (which is purified to a higher degree) is given only from 4 to 15 Grains, in some agreeable Liquor.