Solar System History

[...]Before contacts with Venus and Mars, our Earth suffered a number of cataclysmic contacts. One of the earliest was when the Earth attracted the Moon, still in memory of human kind. Thereafter passing in Saturn atmosphere the Earth was drowned in hydrogen, which drifting through oxygen of the Earth, became water. Thereafter Earth suffered heavily when Saturn and Jupiter collided, and the Earth passed dangerous close to Jupiter. Electrical contacts, change of calender (year, month, day) happened already at that times, in the fourth (?) and third millenia before the present era. Gigantic forms of life which existed at that time, only in few exemplars survived these catastrophes, but were still in existence 34 centuries ago, at the contact-cataclysm caused by Venus. The teaching of Darwin which supposes but slow changes in life-forms is wrong. Gigantic reptilia ceased to exist not tens of millions of years ago, but they lived still a few thousand years ago; they perished in catastrophes, and those that survived could not exist in new conditions, especially because of changed weight of all objects, and of their large bodies, not capable to move, esp. during gravity. Brontosaurus was not a reptile, as it is thought, but a mammal. Humankind survived in races of small kind. Gigants were exterminated. The buildings of cyclopic size-stones were possible chiefly because of different weight of all objects before the contacts. The theories of slowly development of mountains and valleys under causes like rain and wind, are wrong. The earthquakes are the post-effects of the contacts and are readjustments of displaced masses and twisted strata.

[...]To begin with, our Earth collided (contacted) in the fifteenth century before this era with a comet. The head of the comet exchanged violent electrical discharges with our planet, and also with its own tail. The Earth changed the poles, south becoming north, changed axis, changed the orbit of revolution changed speed. As a result, the year that consisted previously of 260 became 36o days (our orbit was approximately that of Venus today). The moon changed its orbit, and the month of 20 days became of 36. Iron previously neared to the core of the Earth, appeared in upper layers. Neft poured from sky and built the present deposit. Meteorites fell in abundance. Harras in desert of Arabia are meteorites fields. Lava streamed on the surface of the Earth not only from volcanoes, but also from clefts. Continents and seas changed places. Rivers disappeared, others appeared, still others inversed their direction (f.e. Jordan, that flow previously to the Meditteraneum, Dead sea being not in existence). A major part of human kind perished. A double tide of immense high swept seas and continents. In general conflagration woods burned down, rivers boiled; magnetic storms reached degree hurtful to bioplasma; immense hurricane accompanied the change of rotation of the Earth. In places struck by electrical contact with the comet nitogren was converted into (deposits) of saltpeter. Air became filled with clouds of carbons or hydrocarbons, and Earth was enveloped in them during a number of years. These compounds of carbon precipitated slowly in the process of cooling.

South pole which was approximately between Greenland and Northern America, or in North America, changed its place by approximately 159 degrees. Its former place might be found by locating the center of the later ice-age-cover; ice age did came to close at that moment. The magnetic pole previous to that contact, or still earlier was probably coinciding with the geographic pole,

The comet changed its path too after the electrical contact with the Earth, its orbit became a stretched ellipse, and was semi-planet semi-comet. After 5o or 52 years it contacted for the second time with the Earth, and the Earth was brought out of rotation. This encounter in the fourteenth century before the present era, had similar effects as the previous contact. But there was no permanent change of direction of rotation, nor change of north and south. Since 34 centuries the sun rises in the East. After the second encounter the Earth was endangered every 50-52 years by this new planet of the solar system: this is the planet Venus. The above recorded calendar changes are effects of first a n d the second encounter.

In the ninth century Venus moving on a stretched ellipse contacted with Mars, brought Mars out of its path, and repeated this contact for a number of times, and since then has Venus occupied approximately its present position in the solar system, and ceased to endanger the Earth. But Mars brought out of its orbit became the dangerous neighbour of the Earth. In -747 the Earth contacted with Mars. The peril of contact repeated itself every fifteen years. At midnight March 23, -687, Earth contacted again with Mars. The catastrophe was of lesser dimensions that that of 14th or 15th century. Still Earth was brought out of its rotation, changed its orbit from one of 360 days to 365 and a quarter somewhat different days; the moon changed its orbit from 36 days to 29 days. Poles were displaced, Europe moving to the South, but the north and south poles did not exchange direction. Mars took its present position in the solar system . In contacts with Venus and Earth, Mars lost most of its organic life; it acquired some of the atmosphere of Venus (carbohydrate) and lost some of its atmosphere to our planet (probably argon and neon). Mars should be examined as to the presence of these rare gases. As a result of these contacts Earth, but also Venus and Mars are warmer than the solar radiation can account for. Anomaly in movemnet of Mercury, as well as the precession of the earth can have their origin in these displacements of planets.

[Source: Immanuel Velikovski -]


Scientific theory preaches that our Solar System condensed from a cloud of galactic dust. Mutual gravitational attraction is calculated to have drawn the nebulous dust particles toward a common center, inducing rotational velocity in the process. When density of dust at the center became high enough, pressure generated heat for the nuclear fusion of a star to develop. Centnfugal force flattened out the primordial nebula into a disc, and then streamers were thrown off to condense independently, forming a system of planets. Photographs of nebulas in deep space illustrate each stage of the evolutionary process, so why couldn't it have happened here just like that?

Well, to begin with, just about every planet in the Solar System exhibits some anomaly that proves the Nebular Hypothesis could not possibly have happened the way we are told in school.

If you refer to the figures supplied by Funk and Wagnall Encyclopedia, you will see that Jupiter has one tenth the diameter of the Sun, but it rotates a hundred times faster. Volume is diameter cubed, and momentum is one half of velo- city squared. Therefore, the Sun has a thousand times the volume of Jupiter, but Jupiter has five times the angular momentum. Jupiter is also a fairly dense planet, containing more mass than all the rest of the Solar System combined, outside of the Sun. Therefore, even after we make allowances for difference of radius, quick and dirty calculation indicates that Jupiter has about as much angular momentum as all the rest of the Solar System put together, including the Sun.

But that should not be! You see, if all the rotational energy in the Solar System is generated by gravitational collapse, then almost all the momentum in the Solar System must be concentrated in the Sun. While not altogether impossible, it is exceedingly unlikely for any planetary material to be flung away from a condensing core without losing the rotational momentum it acquired by condensing in the first place.

Venus rotates backward on its axis, and radiates more energy than it receives from the Sun. At some stretch of the definition, Venus can he regarded as a miniature star. Dust clouds whirling in space are almost certain to be as homogeneous as any other gaseous mixture, so why is the chemistry of Venus grossly different from all the other inner planets? And why did Venus just happen to lock into a three-two orbital-rotational ratio with the Earth without inducing corresponding changes in the angular momentum of our planet? We are, after all, more alike in size and mass than any other bodies in the system, so any gravitational friction between us should he settled by mutual compromise; instead, Venus gave in to us entirely.

The Earth has by far the largest satellite in the Solar System, and the farthest away. The moon, in fact, is not a satellite of the Earth at al1. Moon and Earth form a double planetary system, both going around the Sun while the Moon is perturbed to cross and recross the Earth's orbit. If you draw the orbits of the Earth and the Moon to scale, you will see for yourself that the Moon never curves around the Earth as the orbit of a true satellite must. The Moon always falls in a curve to the Sun - sometimes more, sometimes less. When the curve is tighter, the Moon accelerates and passes the Earth; when the curve is less, the Moon falls back until it is swept back across the Earth's orbit again.

The polar axes of the Earth and Mars are tilted nearly 30 degrees from the plane of their orbits. When a nebula condenses into a disc, all spins must be in the same plane. One of Mars's satellites, Phobos, completes an orbital revolution before Mars makes a polar rotation. Such excess of angular velocity makes Phobos one body in the solar system that could have been cast off by centrifugal force, but it is generally agreed to be a captured asteroid.

The Nebular Hypothesis does not account for the swarms of broken rocks and planetoids orbiting the sun between Mars and Jupiter.

Jupiter radiates more energy than it receives from the Sun, and seems to be growing hotter. Jupiter really is a small star. If so, then the Jovian satellites will eventually be the ideal homes for life to evolve in the Solar System, independently of the Earth. They already have an atmosphere and ice; they need only heat.

Saturn is lighter than water, and stands out with its well developed ring system. Faint rings have been found circling Jupiter and Uranus too, so it may be supposed that all giant planets have the gravitational intensity sufficient to hold interplanetary dust. The Nebular Hypothesis does not explain why Saturn should be so egregiously favored while Jupiter has practically no rings to show for itself.

The axis of Uranus and the revolutionary plane of all its satellites are at right angles to the plane of the rest of the solar system. As Uranus makes its annual rounds of the Sun, Uranians see the Sun spiral out from one pole until it circles the equator and then spiral in toward the opposite pole, then back again. While the Sun is over the equatorial region, day and night resemble our daily cycle on Earth, but during the season when the Sun shines directly over a pole, it is seen to circle around the horizon of the respective temperate region giving constant daylight for (Earth) years without interruption; the equator receives constant twilight while the Sun is over either pole. It is impossible for the velocities of the Uranian system to have evolved at right angles to the solar nebula that created it; it had to have been rolled over onto its side by an interplanetary collision.

The amount of energy required to rotate the axes of a spinning body 90 degrees is equal to its rotational momentum. Uranus is one of the giant planets; an impact sufficient to knock a giant planet onto its side could he delivered by nothing less than a direct impact with another giant planet or a near collision with a celestial body many times more massive. But no other planet can possibly exist in the same region of Uranus' solar orbit while traveling in the opposite direction, necessary if a collision is to take place. Therefore, the anomaly of Uranus can be accounted for most satisfactorily he proposing that an alien star entered the Solar System on a collision course from the interstellar reaches.

If the alien star were the same size as Uranus, a direct impact would be necessary to make the Uranian system turn right about. But a direct impact would have exploded both celestial bodies and nothing would exist in the Uranian orbit today except another ring of interplanetary rubble. On the other hand, an alien star the size of the Sun would have torn the entire Solar System to pieces by its massive gravitational field. Therefore, we can infer that the alien must have been about ten times the mass of Uranus, and probably traveling at a speed in the range of solar escape velocity.

Neptune has lost control of its satellites. The inner one revolves backward as a singular retrograde planetoid, while the outer satellite has the most eccentric orbit in the entire Solar System, not including the comets.

Because of its small size - and an orbit so eccentric that its radial differential is greater than the entire Solar System, inclusive of Neptune - it is generally accepted that Pluto must have been a satellite of Neptune that escaped into solar orbit. When professional astronomers admit this much and no more, they are as guilty of prevarication as ecologists who do not mention that oil is burned to charge the batteries of electric cars. You see, there is nothing at the outermost planetary orbit of the Solar System with sufficient energy to multiply the orbital velocity of Pluto by a factor of the square root of 2 in order that it can escape Neptune.

Unless you postulate an adventitious interplanetary collision course arriving from interstellar space! Every planet in the Solar System violates the physical requirements of the Nebular Hypothesis. An alien star is the obvious solution to a host of astronomical embarrassments. But it also blows a hole through the theory of planetary evolution. This is exactly what Immanuel Velikovsky did.

When Velikovsky published Worlds in Collision, he became the victim of most vehement and scurrilous persecution. To all of us plebes who tread streets of concrete, it doesn't make a damn bit of difference how the Solar System came to be in the shape it is in during our mayfly lives. One story is as good as another as long as it stops the kids from asking `How come?' when you want to put them to bed.

This story is not a scholarly examination of Velikovsky's theory to determine its validity. But if you look at some evidence everyone can see for himself with a toy telescope, it appears that authorized science is what remains after the editors have left all the contradictory evidence on the cutting-room floor. Let's run the astronomical scraps through the old Moviola to see if we can splice something together that will satisfy the popular demand for sex and violence without overlooking that the Solar System is as scrambled as an air terminal after a bomb blast.

As we fade in, Star Rangers scanning the heavens from their far-flung outposts on top of prehistoric ziggurats sight a `thing' from outer space on a collision course with the Solar System. Of course in prehistoric times, climbing the steps of a two hundred foot pyramid was the service range of the contemporary astronauts, but it doesn't really matter whether an expeditionary force intercepts the `thing' while it is still zillions of parsecs distant at Warp 7, or whether we merely wait until it comes within the Three-Mile Limit and reveals itself. I mean, unless you can evacuate the entire planet, there is nothing you can do about a cosmic `thing' anyway! You can bet your Trekkie button the Federation isn't going to tell the taxpayers the options have expired before everyone can plainly see for himself that it isn't pie in the sky. It is a matter of common knowledge that several asteroids have come close to the Earth in recent years, and who cared, as long as they stayed out of sight?

So when we cut in the next scene, we see that the `thing' is already in the Solar System, close enough for the ancients to see that it is a small dark star. As it passes by Neptune, at the Federation frontier, it is seen on the video scope to reach Neptune's outermost satellite, Triton, just past conjunction. The advent of massive gravitational attraction causes Triton to stop in orbit and plummet into its giant primary. As it falls, Triton gains enough velocity to reestablish itself in another orbit, but revolving in the opposite direction, as it would when negatively accelerated. This is where we find Triton today.

The middle satellite is approaching conjunction with the dark star, so it is accelerated positively until it leaves Neptune and goes into the planet business by itself as Pluto. And thus, O Best Beloved, is why we find Pluto returning to its original orbit around Neptune every year, to this very day, just as it must according to the law by Newton. The innermost satellite, Nereid, is in opposition, so the stellar fly-past merely perturbs it into extreme eccentricity.

Velocity in interstellar space is low on the cosmic speedometer, so the dark star is drawn into solar orbit by the close encounter with Neptune.

As it continues its wild fall toward the Sun, the dark star passes through Uranian territory. The titanic waves raised by the interplay of gravitational and electromagnetic fields draw long streamers of gas and particles from the alien and rocks the Uranian System onto its side. The star is now a comet, the most stupendous comet ever seen by mankind, with its dragon head containing more mass than the entire Solar System exclusive of the Sun, and a fiery dragon tail drawn halfway round the sky, illuminating all the heavens, day and night.

The most concentrated mass of the tail whirls around itself by the snap of the gravitational whip until it condenses into a ball surrounded by rings of the lighter trailing particles. And this, O Best Beloved, is why Saturn is a giant planet lighter than water, as if it were entirely atmospheric, and it is surrounded by a system of rings today. Vestiges of the cometary tail remain yet as rings surrounding Jupiter and Uranus.

Careening drunkenly now, the dark star strikes the next planet, shattering it to bits. The explosion throws the alien into a stable solar orbit and it takes up permanent residence in our system as the violent overlord, Jupiter. And this, O Best Beloved, is why we find most of the angular momentum in the solar system today to be in the Jovian System; it was the ante the dark star brought with it from the interstellar reaches so that it could sit in on our game. We lost the planet Krypton, but the Earth is saved in the final reel. The debris of the interplanetar explosion fills the orbit of Sol 5 with asteroids, a ring around the Sun like a petrified rainbow signifying God's favor with man. Lest you leave this theater thinking there is no scientific proof for this scenario, Dr Bill Ovendin, a professor at the University of British Columbia, recently programmed a computer with the orbits of all the known comets and discovered that they trace back to a single explosive point in the asteroid belt.

For human interest between the special-effects shots in interplanetary space, we segue Earthside, and pick up the legends overlooked by Velikovsky. In some early era Neptune and Uranus were visible. They were the original titans, and it was natural that Uranus, being the nearest and brightest, would he regarded as the creator of the heavens.

Saturn was called Kronos by the ancient Greeks. Kronos became Chronos, the God of Time. If Saturn has ever occupied the orbit now holding Jupiter, Saturn's original period would be twelve years, and its location in the zodiac would tell the houses of the horoscope. The planet would serve as a celestial time keeper for astrologers, a profession enjoying the highest social status in those days. As the new cosmic timekeeper, it was natural for Saturn to usurp the liege formerly bestowed upon Uranus; imperial jealousies are never generously disposed, so it was natural for the Titans to be buried in the black of deep space. Neptune being put out deeper than Uranus, Poseidon became god of the oceans.

But kronos is also the etymological root of corona, meaning crown. Encircled by shining rings, Saturn is indeed the crowned planet, deserving recognition as the supreme god. Now, the rings of Saturn are barely visible to the sharpest eyes; a simple magnifying mirror will bring them into view. If, however, Saturn ever sat on the throne of the Jovian orbit during an interim reign while the crown prince was off to the wars with Krypton, the crown of Kronos would be clearly visible throughout the Solar System. The Saturnian crown is still used artistically to represent the halo of angels, so we may suspect that men once saw the Kings Father directly.

Saturn is said to have eaten his children, fatally overlooking Jupiter. This part of the Greek myth could be describing knots of the original cometary tail condensing into visible satellites before spiraling into their primary as the comet settled into stable orbits. The surviving rings we see today may be merely the last vestige of a multijeweled crown.

The myths indicate that there were several changes in the planetary orbits during the creation of the heavens as we now see them. The various poetic histories conform to the hypothesis of a dark star entering the Solar System because it is unlikely for all planets to be aligned so that everything happened during the course of a single preorbital trajectory. Once caught in a cometary orbit after being trapped on Neptune's gravitational trident, Jupiter probably made hundreds of elliptical circuits between successive encounters of the catastrophic kind, leaving plenty of breathing space for mankind to recover between cosmic disasters and make up different myths.

Here is a synopsis of Immanuel Velikovsky's scenario: When Jupiter collided with Krypton, a mass was blown out denser than the Saturnian comet, including some of the rocky core of the doomed planet. The jetsam formed a new, smaller comet swinging tightly around the Sun on an orbit of fifty-four years. Because space is tight in the downtown section of the solar community (hold tight while we change metaphors again), this comet had close and frequent encounters with all the inner planets. On each strafing run, the inner planets were peppered with meteors. The craters are dearly visible today on Mercury, the Moon, and Mars. The terrestrial craters have been obliterated by our fertile atmosphere, but the fracturing of the Canadian Shield in concentric circles around Hudson's Bay indicates that the northern sea is a meteor crater created by an impact powerful enough to shake the Earth on its axis and probably obliterate large life forms over half a hemisphere; smaller craters pock the entire Atlantic Coast of North America. After a pyrotechnic exchange with Mars, which must have rivaled the spectacle of Jupiter and Uranus for mankind, the daughter comet swung into stable orbit around the Sun as the planet Venus.

The persecution of Velikovsky is most determined from astronomers because it destroys the steady-state theory necessary to make coherent sense out of current measurements. It is necessary to believe that all extant physical activity occurs everywhere at all times at the same rate in order to have a theoretical science and get paid for teaching it. Otherwise all you have is engineering and science fiction. The physical evidence on which Velikovsky has been prosecuted by the establishment is not proclaimed to the public; the excuse is that the public does not understand physics. The result is that Velikovsky was given no chance to defend himself in a manner that habeas corpus is supposed to provide, nor could he put judgment to a public jury.

Insofar as I have been able to get any answer from the enemies of Velikovsky, they base their case on one of Newton's laws conserving momentum. A material body disturbed in its orbit must return to the point of disturbance on each subsequent revolution. The Solar System preserves far too much order today for any collision courses to have occurred in the past, much less the historical past. Most physicists, who are specialists, are satisfied that the law is inviolate. But Einstein opened a completely new and radical conception of Newton's laws.

The solution to Velikovsky's problem is implicated with the solution to another irritating problem bothering astronomers for over two hundred years, Bode's Law of Planetary Harmonics.

Since it became possible to calculate the distance separating planets with more than accidental precision, it has been known that each planetary orbit is twice as far from the Sun as the one nearer; credit for measuring the intervals has been accorded to the German astronomer Johann Elert Bode, for getting his ratios recognized by publication in a hard-core scientific journal. Bode found that if an Astronomical Unit is established as 9,000,000 miles, the following multiples of that Unit are measured between the planets: Sun 4 Mercury 3 Venus 3 Earth 6 Mars 12 Asteroids 24 Jupiter 48 Saturn 96 Uranus 96 Neptune 96 Pluto.

Saturn was the outer limit of the known system when Bode did his number, so the discovery of Uranus was accompanied by great professional excitement to see that Bode's Law was followed indefinitely. But when Neptune and Pluto were discovered to be separated by intervals of 96 Units each, the professional verdict decided that the Law had broken down; and respectable orthodoxy regards the Theory of Planetary Harmonics as an empirical accident with no significance whatsoever.

Upon immediate inspection, the interval between each planet, from Venus to Uranus, increases by a constant factor of two. Bode's Law would he indisputable were it not that Mercury is twice the distance from Venus that the progression demands, and Neptune divides the orbital space between Uranus and Pluto by two. Two is the constant factor throughout, but why does the operation change at the extremes? An almost perfect law like this is what keeps scientists awake more than the 2 A.M. nursing.

Now, in order to understand the conformation of the Solar System, it is exceedingly difficult to avoid the theory of cosmic collisions. In order to understand what happens in the process of cosmic collisions, it is necessary to prove Bode's Law. In order to prove Bode's Law, you must understand relativity. Professional scientists insist that no one can understand relativity - not even Einstein was able to do that. The impossible will not take a bit longer. Let me show you.

If you find a thin, vibrant disc, dust the surface with powder, and make it resonate to a musical tone, the powder will move into concentric windrows, spaced a wavelength apart. As the circles approach the center, radial vibrations break up the circular pattern. What you see is a model representing the mechanics of Bode's Law and the General Theory of Relativity.

What you see happening is produced by waves of sound traveling through the disc in all directions. As the waves move, they carry the dust with them. Where two waves meet in opposite directions, a wave pattern is created that does not travel. The pattern is called a standing wave. The standing wave beats up and down in the middle of its length, while there is no motion at all on both ends. As an example, two children swinging a skipping rope between them are making a standing-wave pattern with the length of the rope. The wave energy travels back and forth between the two arms swinging the rope; if the traveling waves coming from both ends are not synchronized, the standing-wave pattern breaks down so that you can see the wave motion travel from one end to the other and back again. A ring strung on the rope will be driven by the waves from the loop in the middle to the nodes at the ends.

Most of us armchair physicists will argue at great length before being stirred to dust a disc with powder or observe children skipping rope. But if you will ring for your maid to bring you tea you will see concentric standing waves on the surface of the fluid in the cup when she puts the tray down on your end table with sufficient impact to generate vibrations.

Those of you who study any one of several versions of this model will eventually notice that the rings representing planetary orbits around the Sun are spaced equal distances apart, whereas the planetary orbits have a difference between each orbit established by the factor of two. The reason the rings of powder on the disc are equally spaced is that the vibration is supplied by waves of equal length. The field of energy constituting the Solar System is defined by waves of all lengths, like white sound. When a full-frequency spectrum of sound is used to generate standing waves around a focal point the longer waves are superimposed through the shorter waves amplifying them in some places and canceling them out in others. The harmonic beats where all waves coincide to amplify and cancel in the same places form rings separated by octave intervals, just as we see in the Solar System.

Since Niels Bohr published the planetary model of the atom, the atom and the Solar System have been understood to be models of each other. Since Erwin Schrdinger proved the wave equations of quantum physics, the atom has been recognized as a standing-wave structure composed of an infinite spectrum of random vibrations. All we have done is say that if the Solar System is a cosmic atom, and if the atom is a standing-wave structure, then the Solar System must be a standing-wave structure too.

Well, if an atom is the essential unit of material, and if an atom is a standing-wave structure, then all material must be standing-wave structures. Therefore, if the solar system is a standing-wave structure, then the entire gravitational field of the Sun must be solid material. The only difference between the material of the Sun's gravitational field and the Earth we stand on is density. The wavelengths of gravity are so long that we can walk through them as if the standing waves were insubstantial, like we walk through air. Many people will snort that this deduction is preposterous; the more schooling you have, the more likely you will insist that it isn't so. But have you forgotten that material, by definition, is identical to mass? Einstein's General Theory of Relativity proves that the Sun's gravitational field possesses mass and functions as a massive structure. Einstein knew it all along; he just stopped talking at this point.

Now, why do you suppose that the curtain of silence is dropped at the point where Einstein and Bode and Velikovsky all meet with mutually supporting calculations?

Well, when Einstein published his equation E=mc2, he proved that all material can be converted into energy, the amount of energy depending upon the wavelength of the standing waves forming the material. This means that the Sun's gravitational field - filling all of interplanetary space - is solid energy, just like uranium, waiting to be mined. Now you can see why Einstein is supposed to be incomprehensible, and relativity is taught to make sure no one can understand it. And now you can see why Bode's Law cannot be allowed to be recognized. And now you can understand one reason why Velikovsky had to be given the deStalinization treatment. You see, the military-industrial-financial establishment can stake out a monopoly on uranium, enabling them to charge whatever OPEC demands for oil, but everyone has free access to the Sun's gravitational field. As Al Capp illustrated with his shmoos, industrial society cannot survive if the universe supplies mankind with the necessities of life free of charge.

The military-industrial establishment published the first release of atomic energy from uranium in 1945. Would you like to guess when Einstein's equations were proven by releasing the energy contained in the Sun's gravitational field? According to information available to me, Nikola Tesla gained insight into spacic energy at the beginning of this century, before petroleum was used for much except kerosene lamps; by 1925 he was ready with experimental proofs. Reports have reached me of about a dozen private parties making similar discoveries in their own way; they were all given the deep six, like Tesla got. The latest word is that a party in the Northeast, calling itself X-Tec, is trying to get into the consumer market by generating spacic energy from the Sun's gravitational field; we'll see if it survives any longer than its predecessors. In the meantime, the Soviet military-industrial establishment has managed to secure a monopoly on the free air their citizens are allowed to breathe, so it has no reservations about implementing Tesla's theories for generating electric power from the energy of empty space, and they are proceeding apace while Americans are building windmills to get the same energy the hard way.

The most completely documented chronicles of the development of spacic energy in America is reported in the book, The Sea of Energy, published privately by the son of the inventor in Salt Lake City. As far back as l914, before the First World War, Henry Moray, an electrical engineer, perceived that solar activity generated radio waves in the Earth's atmosphere. An antenna transforms the electromagnetic waves into a standing electrical wave in the conductor. The energy of this wave is amplified by resonance to provide the power for the primitive radio sets Moray played with. From the operation of the crystal radio, Henry Moray acquired an understanding of the Sun's gravitational field as a cosmic standing wave structure supported by incredibly high-frequency vibrations from the quantum field.

Natural germanium crystals were used for tuning the early radio receivers. Moray inferred that there was something in crystal geometry that could resonate in tune with the quantum field and transform the field energy into electricity by harmonic amplification. So Moray sought the purest germanium crystals chemists could provide, always complaining that the crystallization was not fine enough. Once the alternating current in his crystals was fed into a step-down transformer, Moray drew enough power to supply household appliances with 500 kilowatts indefinitely.

As a reward for bringhng his invention to the United States Government, Moray became the target of hired assassins. His laboratory was destroyed and his credibility ruined so that the design of his `valve' was lost with his death. We can infer, however, that the essential design must be so simple that you can pick up all the components to build your own basement electric power generator from Radio Shack for less than one thousand dollars. After all, in those days not even Moray had enough knowledge of electronics to build a transistor, and the complexity of a TV circuit was beyond conception. However he did it, he tapped infinite energy, like the technologists of Atlantis, without pollution or explosion from the Sun's gravitational field with a circuit essentially no more complicated than a glorified crystal radio receiver.

Now that we have made the engineering discoveries which are the goal of this story, we can return along the trail on which we came to prove that the evidence for the prosecution of Immanuel Velikovsky by the defenders of the established faith is unconstitutional. At the same time, we shall make further discoveries opening new possibilities for more fantastic engineenng.

We see the powder bounce up and down on the vibrating disc until it settles at the static nodes of the standing waves. Obviously there is a tangible flow from the loops to the nodes. Therefore, any particle supported by the vibrating field will flow from the loops to the nodes like a chip on a stream of water. The loops can be represented as hills and the nodes as valleys for purposes of illustration, but we can see there are no real hills or valleys in a gravitationally defined space; there is only a flow of energy represented by velocity gradients. So any celestial body let loose in the solar gravitational field will `gravitate' toward the nodal orbits as if attracted by some mysterious force. You will recognize that this model is the very representation of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.

Now you know why a planet finds an orbit at a specific location in the solar gravitational field, but you may wonder why it revolves around the Sun in that orbit. If you examine the vibrating plate intently, you will eventually discern that the flow of energy does not stop at the nodes, but undergoes an abrupt right angle rotation of velocity with a transformation of warve frequency and speed. The flow now circles the orbital path, carrying the planet with it like a log on a stream of water between banks.

A scientific intelligence can be gauged by the point at which a person accepts an answer as final and satisfying. So we continue to ask why a planet occupies a specific location in its orbit instead of any other location along the length of the circuit. Well, more inspection eventually reveals that the entire nodal circle vibrates as a linear standing-wave structure, composed of all frequencies, like a circular violin string strummed by a breeze. The fundamental frequency of the orbital resonance is subdivided into harmonic intervals, defined by loops and nodes of different energy levels. Residual discords in the harmonics cause the pattern to revolve around the field center. Therefore, once a body is carried by the solar gravitational field to an orbital node, it will be carried farther in the orbit until it settles into the deepest node in the circuit. That is where it will stay as the entire gravitational field revolves.

If this model is true, then there must be a node of the second gravitational harmonic of the Earth's orbit directly opposite us, on the other side of the Sun where we can never see it. This calculation is the probable source of the myth of a counter-Earth. The myth, in fact, is true, but its proof is another story for another book. As far as we are concerned here, astronomers have proven that the counter-Earth cannot possibly exist because there as no evidence of the gravitational effects its mass must produce. The reason the counter-Earth is not found where we see it is that the space in which it is calculated to exist happens to be where the fundamental loop also exists. The fundamental loop cancels the secondary node with enough energy left over to raise a sizable gravitational `hill.'

But the fundamental loop flows in both directions around the orbit to the tertiary nodes, a pair of gravitational nodes located 120 degrees in both directions from us. Therefore we should expect to find smaller masses of interplanetary material caught in these two depressions. In fact, astronomers have observed aggregations of interplanetary debris collected at both these locations. When we see interplanetary bodies attracted to locations where no central masses exist to establish a gravitational field, we have the proof that gravity is inherent in the flow of energy through space rather than a mysterious force generated by a massive body.

We are forced to the further deduction that Jupiter does not possess the most powerful gravitational field in the Solar System because it possesses almost all of the mass, outside of the Sun. It is possible for Jupiter to have been created the most massive body in the Solar System because the greatest gravitational flow in the Sun's field is into that location. Jupiter's gravitational field would exist at that location even if Jupiter were not there to occupy the space.

Another proof for the model is derived from the empirical fact that all planets sweep an equal area of their orbital planes in equal times. Momentum is a time function, and the equation for momentum is identical to the equation for circular area. Therefore, the angular momentum of each orbit is identical throughout the solar gravitational field. The energy flow from the loops to the nodes is in direct proportion to the area of the orbits. The area of the orbits increases at a ratio equal to half the square of the radius. First sight tells you that the momentum of each orbit should increase by one half the square of the radius if all the energy, from the loop area flows into the nodal line. But the solar field is a compound standing-wave structure; the wavelength of the standing waves increases in direct ratio with the radius. The formula equating energy with wavelength states that momentum varies inversely with frequency, so that the difference in energy represented by area is exactly balanced by the difference in energy represented by wavelength. Therefore, the momentum of the solar field must be constant throughout.

A final proof is that escape velocity is the square root of 2 times orbital velocity. Because the increase in field wavelength is continuous along the gravitational radius, the loop between successive orbits is not exactly between them. The peak of the loop divides the inter orbital radius into fractions defined by the square root of 2, like the intensity of light falls off from a point source. An increase of orbital velocity by a factor of the square root of 2 gives a planet exactly the amount of momentum it needs to surmount the gravitational hill confining it to its orbital vally; and once over the divide, it is downhill all the way to the next star.

The planets occupy the deepest nodes in the solar gravitational field. But the solar space is filled with an infinite number of higher harmonic nodes, each of which is capable of attracting and holding a mass of material. But the higher the harmonic, the less energy flows into it, so the smaller the mass it can attract and retain.

The gravitational node holding the Moon, for example, is so much weaker than the one holding the Earth that by the time a spaceship acquires enough velocity to escape the Earth, it has far too much momentum for the Moon to hold. You may think that landing on the Moon must be as easy as falling out of bed once an Apollo spaceship passes over the gravitational divide and begins to drop down onto the Moon. But this isn't true. Unless the space shot is aimed for a direct hit on the surface of the Moon, anything leaving the Earth must fly right past the Moon into solar orbit. Getting down is the hardest part.

Residual discords in the solar geometry causes the gravitational hollows to wander along courses described by the Drunkard's Walk, calculated by the mathematics of Probability. The amount of indirection is directly proportional to the value of the harmonic fraction. This means that the major harmonics represented by the planetary orbits will manifest negligible perturbations during any historic period, while the locations of higher harmonic nodes wander around with increasing randomness. Harmonic coincidence of wandering nodes result in periodic intersections; and once again, the lower the harrmonic, the longer the period between intersections, while the higher harmonics are mixing together continuously. A small body caught in the shallow depression of a high node will be tipped out when confluence with a harmonic loop causes a temporary reversal of gravitational flow. If a particle is small enough, it can be carried by waves from node to node throughout interstellar space before it gets trapped by the powerful energy flow of a low harmonic. In fact, interstellar space is filled with dust floating around like this. Only the confluence of a low-harmonic loop with a low-harmonic node is sufficient to reverse the gravitational flow keeping a planet in its orbit. When that happens, planets, stars, and even galaxies are set on collision courses. Human history would be briefer than our two thousand years if low-harmonic loops intersected with low-harmonic nodes more often.

Now we can prove why Venus maintains a near-circular orbit today even though it is possible for her to have arrived in our skies within human memory after a series of catastrophic interplanetary collisions. Celestial bodies of planetary mass gravitate quickly to low-harmonic nodes, and low-harmonic nodes are inherently stable in orbit. Lighter celestial bodies can be retained more or less indefinitely in a succession of higher harmonic nodes; the higher the harmonic, the more eccentric and unstable the orbit will be. This is why we find the planets to follow regular orbits of circular dimensions while the mot eccentric and unstable bodies in the Solar System are also the lightest and most vaporous - the comets.

The flow of energy along high-harmonic orbits, not concentric with the field's center, are probably the `rivers of energy' calculated by Professor Eric Laithwaite, which he hoped to harness with his gyroscopes. Once these currents are charted, they can be used to carry vehicles throughout the universe like floating on a cosmic jet stream across oceans of space and even time. But this is not a prevenient discovery, either. The Orientals have always known of the existence of Ley Lines, and they use Ley Lines to control the flow of energy in their social and personal space.

Meanwhile, back at the Kangaroo Courthouse, let's see how Velikovsky is making out with his defense. If he uses the proof of Bode's Law to disallow the invocation of Newton's law, Velikovsky runs the risk of incriminating himself by failing to foresee all the inevitable consequences of General Relativity. You see, all the octave orbits are occupied in the solar subdivision. If Venus settled on the residential lot at 12 Sunshine Valley, she probably had to evict a previous tenant. Whom do you suppose got bumped? When Venus arrived, the Moon moved in with Mother, and she has been spending the nights with us ever since. Plato mentions a time when there was no moon in the sky, called the Preselenite Era.

As soon as you began to play musical orbits with the planets, the distribution of angular momentum in the Solar System is disturbed. When Venus brought additional energy from interstellar space, it meant that the gravitational hollow at #3 Sunnydale Circle must have drifted away from the Sun, while the revolution of the Moon made further adjustments to maintain Conservation. If the proposition of interplanetary collision is essentially valid, the Earth must have been closer to the sun during a previous geophysical era. Merely a few megamillion miles nearer would have added enough extra insolation to provide the Earth with an allover suntan from pole to pole. Geologists know that the Earth did have a tropical climate during the Paleozoic Age. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain this anomaly, but they all require special cases involving a great deal of critical ignorance to remain tenable. Special cases do not a science make; the theory of interplanetary collision eliminates all the obvious anomalies with a single, simple, and provable mechanism.

Now if the Earth were forced to leave the Sunshine Coast of the Solar Estates and rebuild in the cooler hinterlands, whom do you suppose we displaced. It had to be Mars. If Mars were ever closer to the Sun than it is right now, it must have enjoyed the most invigorating climate in the entire Solar System while dinosaurs were sweltering in the swamps of the Tethys Sea. If life is a natural and inevitable process of planetary evolution, intelligent life had to appear on Mars before it began anywhere else.

Mars is large enough to hold an atmosphere capable of supporting terrestrial life forms. There is incontrovertible evidence of large flows of water on Mars. Where you find heat and light and toil and water, you must find life, too, or else you must throw out the Theory of Human Evolution from natural causes and return to Divine Creation.

The professionally published explanation for the evidence of liquid water flowing on Mars is that volcanic heat produced massive eruptions of water from sub-Arean rocks which streamed in a deluge for thousands of miles, carving canyons dozens of miles deep in the Martian continent. The professional statement may, in fact, be true, but the authorities cannot expect any high school kid to believe it unless a lot of obvious contradictions are accounted for.

To begin with, it is almost as cold as liquid air on Mars; that is carbon dioxide we see frozen at the polar caps through our toy telescopes. Water is not going to flow very far from the source of eruption unless the entire hemisphere is warmed by volcanism to keep the water liquid. Enough heat to warm an entire hemisphere for swimming is not localized volcanism. It is either planetary convulsions or else it is climate.

Next, the range of temperature in which water can flow any distance over the land surface of Mars is restricted to the range of human comfort. Water cannot exist on Mars today because of the near-vacuum conditions, but even if Mars had all the air it could hold, the boiling temperature of water would still be so low that it would vaporize from the heat of volcanism before it flowed any distance.

Finally, the surface gravity of Mars is so low that water isn't going to flow rapidly enough to gouge canyons in its path unless it is constantly cascading. The canyons of Mars are not the kind of erosion carved by sheets of cascades, but more like the Grand Canyon requiring a constant flow of water in the same channel for millions of years. This condition could not have been satisfied unless there was enough air on Mars to make a Tibetan feel at home, while the climate was no warmer than the USA and no colder than Canada. The absence of densely grouped meteor bombardment and other evidence of erosion subsequent to the carving of the Arean canyons indicates that Mars enjoyed a terrestrial climate very recently in astronomical time - probably within human memory. Mars probably lost its air, water, and climate by a sudden catastrophe involving heat intense enough to flash its oceans into water vapor.

If Velikovsky's scenario were staged during human memory, the people who saw the action were not living on Earth. They were Martians. As Mars is older than the Earth in its physical evolution, people on Mars may be expected to he more advanced technologically than we are now. Once they saw that alien squatters were going to break their leasehold on Sunny Acres, everyone who could raise the price of a ticket on the space ark would pack their luggage with Kodachrome, disconnect the household utilities, and hop over to the Mediterranean Riviera for the Ice Age - bringing their pyramid and crystal technology with them.

Support for the hypothesis of interplanetary colonization is found in comparative anatomy. The human animal is rather poorly adapted to conditions on Earth. The sunlight is too bright for our eyes and skin, our backbones are too long, our feet are too weak, and our weight is ruinous to posture. If all creatures' morphology is determined by an evolutionary adaptation to its environment we are best adapted for comfortable living on Mars, providing the climate were sweetened.

The white race appears to be new to this planet; civilization appears to have arrived suddenly and fully blown, then decaying for millennia after its initial appearance before recovering to our present eminence. The prehistoric aborigines of the cradles of civilization say they were conquered by Aryan invaders. The word Aryan is a variation of Arean, and Arean means Martian. There is a tribe in the Mideast who claims its ancestors came from Mars. As myths go this one requires a sophistication of concept not proper to a primitive tribe; the Earth must be recognized as a planet unsupported in empty space and the bright reddish star must he recognized as another world.

The most interesting evidence for the Martian origin of the white race, if not an extraterrestrial immigration for all of man kind is provided by science reporter Gay Gaer Luce in Body Time. Biologists acknowledge that the vital rhythms of all creatures are established by their place of origin; this is why subequatorial plants bloom for us in the North at Christmas, and species entrained to the periods of the Moon are believed to have evolved in the tidal ocean. When experimental human subjects are isolated from all terrestrial rhythms as much as possible to discover the free period of the human body, it has been found that most people settle into a daily rhythm of sleep and work of twenty-four hours and forty minutes. Twenty-four hours and forty minutes is the daily period of Mars.

The mechanics of evolution make it practically impossible for any species to develop without integration with its environment yet this is just what we have managed to do. We are profoundly out of order with the rest of terrestrial life. Everywhere we go we destroy the natural environment with wholesale insensitivity to its rhythms and balances. We are reconstructing the entire surface of this planet to suit our alien dimensions. The distress we stir on this Earth may be due to the fact we don't belong here.

[Source: T. B. Pawlicki - How to Build a Flying Saucer And Other Proposals in Speculative Engineering, chapter 3: Beyond Velikovsky: Einstein's Relativity Demonstrated, Mining Pure Energy from Empty Space, and the Green Hills of Mars]