monoatomic elements

Transition Group Elements

— Description —

There is a group of elements found in the middle of the periodic table known as the "transition group elements":

1) One category of these is called the precious elements:

Silver, and the "light platinum group" ( palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium). These are called 3d transition group elements.

Gold, and the "heavy platinum group" ( platinum, iridium, and osmium). These are called 4d transition, group elements.

2) Another category of these are the non precious elements:

Copper, cobalt and nickel. These are called 2d transition group elements.

These elements are known as "transition group elements". They are in an uncertain state as regards their positive or negative electro-charge behavior, hence the name "transition". Their valence. electron orbitals are always half filled or half empty. (Electrons in the outer shells of an atom are referred to as valence electrons. Different orbital states for electrons can hold only certain numbers of electrons. ) Elements with fewer electrons in the outer shells tend to be electro-positive, and those with more electrons in the outer shells tend to be electro-negative.

These transition elements possess a unique property in that the electrons in the Partially filled outer orbitals can interchange under the right conditions with electrons in the partially filled inner orbitals (d). This is the underlying basis of catalytic reactions. (A catalytic reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs much more rapidly than normal without the catalyst itself participating in the reaction.)

Transition Group Elements

Atom Clustering and The Monoatomic State

Most atoms cluster in groups of at least two or more atoms. However, the transition group elements, because of their unique properties, can be found already existing, or can be created and are able to remain, in a stable single atom state. This is achieved by having no nearest neighbor closer than four angstroms and, therefore, by not being able to chemically bind with other atoms. This is called a "monoatomic" state.

In this state, these atoms interact in two dimensions, in a unique continuous linear movement between a strong repulsive force when close enough to each other, and a strong attractive force when moved apart at a certain distance. Only when the repulsive force is overcome, will these atoms aggregate to form a metallic union.

In metals, during the process of going from a many atom state to a monoatomic state, there is a disaggregation of the metal-metal bonds and a loss of the properties characteristically assigned to the description of a metal. Different transition elements have different critical atom cluster size which determine their metal characteristics and behavior. These characteristic physical properties are lost at different rates depending on the element involved. (For example, the critical cluster size for rhodium is five atoms; for iridium it is nine atoms.

Two or more atoms, up to thirty-three, of the same transition group element, when clustered together, are called "metal-metal" bonded. In these cluster sizes, they can not be called truly metallic. It takes a twelve atom cluster before they become electrically conductive. It takes thirteen atoms for their true metallic properties to begin to appear. It takes a cluster of thirty-three atoms before they become fully metallic, and will grow all by themselves. At thirty-three form a "face center cubic", a first basic growth structure of three dimensions solidly formed like a cube. In all these quasi metallic and fully metallic states, the atoms interact in three dimensions. In the monoatomic state, they are referred to as non-metallic and they interact in two dimensions.

In the monoatomic state, these elements have unique and consistent behavior. This is their true elemental state.


Transition Group Elements

Superdeformed Nuclei, High Spin Low Energy in the Monoatomic State:

In the monoatomic state, the atoms of the transition group elements lose their chemical reactivity and change the configuration of the nucleus. This change in nuclear configuration seems to cause the electrical change that pacifies the chemical effect. It may be considered as the mono-atom internally compensating for the highly reactive chemical state.

The nuclear configuration changes because there is a correlation between the nuclear orbitals and the electron orbitals as to how full they are. In the nucleus, totally filled orbitals (harmonic) exclude the partially filled orbitals (anharmonic) by pushing them away. The nucleus almost divides into one filled, and one half filled. This is known as the "liquid drop" theory.

This condition is unique to these atoms. The newly shaped nucleus is called "superdeformed". Nuclear physicists have recently confirmed that these atoms will change their proton and neutron configurations when they have no nearest neighbor to di-pole and di-pole react with. They can observe one atom at a time in linear accelerators.

A normal nucleus is shaped non spherically (deformed) at a vertical (length) to horizontal (width) ratio of 1.3 to 1. It is very stable and is held together by the strong force. It takes one million electron volts to knock a proton out of the nucleus!

The nucleons of these monoatomic elements adjust their positions in the nucleus, such that the ratio of their length to width becomes 2 to 1. These "soft" nuclei (those having a number of protons within a certain range and half filled orbitals) deform more easily than normal nuclei. 0nly ten electron volts are needed to cause a superdeformed nucleus to break apart, and this can be done with a mere DC arc! (See discussion of gamma emission below.)

The presence of a superdeformed nucleus is directly correlated to a change in its spin state; it passes from a low spin state to a high spin state. It has been found that the nuclei of these elements have a higher total energy in a low spin state (their internal temperature is higher) than when they are in a high spin state (their internal temperature is lower). This causes the mono-atom to seek the high spin state because that state has the total lowest energy. Furthermore, this high spin state will continue to exist until such time as a nearest neighbor atom is able to transfer energy into the nucleus and convert it back to the higher energy low spin state. (This is called "pinning" in the superconducting industry.)

[...]

David Hudson's Discoveries

David Hudson discovered that the monoatomic state can exist naturally and remain in a stable state in the transitional group elements. (ORME) He also discovered that in this state, the atoms can join to become a many atom resonance coupled system of quantum oscillators, resonating in two dimensions, indeed perfect superconductors, at room temperature. (S-ORME)

Hudson discovered that the precious elements, in the group of transitional elements, could be found in a monoatomic form in certain ores and that by a chemical method, he could separate them out from these ores. The high spin low energy state is stable and naturally maintained. it needs no external manmade manipulation. The internal temperature of the atom is measured to be almost zero degrees Kelvin .(approximately three degrees). This is a naturally cold state. It is, in fact, a perfect superconductor.

Hudson also discovered that he could prepare these mono-atoms from commercial metallic forms of the transitional group elements as well, and maintain them in this state by removing the chemical and crystalline energy. This is achieved by providing another element that is highly reactive and which has a chemical affinity for the transition element. When they react, they form a compound of the two elements. Through a process of replacement chemistry, hydrogen is exchanged for the reactive metal. The hydrogen transition metal compound is chemically removed from the solution and the hydrogen is thermally annealed from the sample. It is inherent in these precious elements to convert to the high spin state if this particular sequence is followed. This process is permanent and does not have to be continuously applied. It is also infinitely less expensive than the traditional refrigeration process.

[Source: http://www.hbci.com/~wenonah/new/hudson.htm]

SUPERDEFORMATION OF NUCLEI [“New Radioactivities,” Walter Greiner and Aurel Sandulescu, Scientific American, March 1990, pages 58-67]:

“An atomic nucleus can spontaneously restructure itself, occasionally ejecting rare clusters of protons and neutrons.” These clusters can be any number of nucleons, e.g. 14 or 24; but the emission of a cluster of nucleons other than say an alpha particle (a He nucleus composed of two protons and two neutrons) is much rarer than alpha emission. “The structure of the nucleus arises from two types of interactions: strong and electromagnetic. As a result of the strong interaction, or nuclear force, protons bind to neutrons and to each other. The nuclear force binds nucleons very tightly but acts over a very short range. To separate two neutrons that are one fermi [10-15 meter] apart, for instance, requires an energy of about one million electron volts [1 Mev]. On the other hand, only about 10 electron volts is needed to dissociate two nucleons that are 10 fermis apart. As a result of the electromagnetic interaction, or Coulomb force, protons repel other protons. Although the Coulomb force is weaker than the nuclear force, it acts over a much longer range. If two protons are one fermi apart, the Coulomb force is about 100 times weaker than the nuclear force. Yet at a distance of 10 fermis, the Coulomb force is about 10 times stronger than the nuclear force.”

[...]

The nuclei of different elements consist of shells occupied by a certain number of protons and neutrons, much in the manner of the electron shell structure surrounding the nucleus. “If the shells of a nucleus are completely filled, as are those of calcium and lead, the nucleus is stable and consequently spherical.” “Stable nuclei usually consist of a ‘magic number’ of protons or neutrons; that is, they have 2, 8, 20, 28, 40, 50, 82, 126, or 184 protons or neutrons. Nuclei that have double magic numbers are particularly stable -- for example, calcium-48 (20 protons and 28 neutrons) or lead 208 (82 protons and 126 neutrons).” The Pauli exclusion principle “holds that a proton cannot occupy an energy state filled by another proton. The same is true of neutrons. As a result, each proton fills one energy state, starting with the state that has the least energy and filling as many states as there are protons. The neutrons fill another set of energy states.”

When the outermost shell of either protons or neutrons is not filled, and the number of protons and/or neutrons depart from the ‘magic numbers’, the nuclear structure is unstable. This can result in superasymmetric fission of the element. “Superasymmetric fission produces two fragments that differ greatly in mass and charge. The emission of the smaller of these two fragments produces radiation known as cluster radioactivity. The cluster is usually several times larger than an alpha particle.” What physicists call “the collective model holds that the outer part of the nucleus can deform when the outer nucleons move with respect to the nucleons of the inner nucleus. [Thus] this collective motion, or deformation, derives from the liquid-drop model. Cold fission can also be expected, as a nucleus splits into two ‘unexcited’ nuclei.” “Unlike the ordinary (hot) process, the energy released in cold fission does not excite the emitted nuclei into high-energy states. The nuclear fragments from cold fission are therefore more spherical and less elongated than the nuclear fragments from ordinary fission.”

[...]

QUANTUM SIZE EFFECTS IN RAPIDLY ROTATING NUCLEI [Y. R. Shimizu and R. A. Broglia, Physical Review C, April 1990, pages 1865-1868.]:

“It has been conjectured that the usual Cooper instability will not exist any more in small particles containing a reduced number of fermions, like, e.g., metallic particles. Therefore, superconductivity should disappear for particles in the quantal size effects (QSE’s) regime, when the energy difference between two discrete one-electron states is comparable to the energy gap of the superconducting state. This means that small superconductors with fewer than about 104 to 105 electrons as well as, e.g. atomic nuclei should be strongly affected by quantal size effects.” “The transition from pair-correlated to normal system with increasing angular momentum involves the coupling between the bands associated with the ground state and the excited states representing fluctuations in the pairing field. The understanding of the role played by pairing fluctuations in nuclei, which is one of the central questions of high-spin physics...”

[Under magnetic fields in the range of 700,000 gauss, it has been observed that high-spin states allow for transferring energy from nucleus to nucleus without loss of energy. This implies the existence of high-spin states (even without magnetic fields) which may lead to superconductivity. Example: The (relatively high temperature, 93 oK) superconductor, Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBa2Cu3O7), is formed by repeated healing and cooling of the compound. This heating and cooling results in water vapor from the atmosphere bleeding into the compound to combine hydrogen and oxygen elements in such a way that some of the copper is left in a monoatomic state, and thus available for superconductivity. In this respect, the implication is for an asymmetric high spin nucleus, arranged in a line some 6.3 Angstroms apart, resonating in two dimensions, to perpetuate the wave and achieve superconductivity. The atoms seem to space themselves automatically, and form the nuclear equivalent of Cooper Pairs. The nucleons screen the electrons, allowing them to pair, and thereby losing their particle aspects -- the fermions thus become Bosons (Bose Condensation). What one achieves is a nucleus with light flowing, instead of electrons.]

[Source: http://www.halexandria.org/dward477.htm]